NCHECK(8) System Manager's Manual NCHECK(8)NAME
ncheck - generate names from i-numbers
ncheck [ -i numbers ] [ -a ] [ -s ] [ filesystem ]
Ncheck with no argument generates a pathname vs. i-number list of all files on a set of default file systems. Names of directory files are
followed by `/.'. The -i option reduces the report to only those files whose i-numbers follow. The -a option allows printing of the names
`.' and `..', which are ordinarily suppressed. The -s option reduces the report to special files and files with set-user-ID mode; it is
intended to discover concealed violations of security policy.
A file system may be specified.
The report is in no useful order, and probably should be sorted.
SEE ALSO sort(1), dcheck(8), fsck(8), icheck(8)DIAGNOSTICS
When the file system structure is improper, `??' denotes the `parent' of a parentless file and a pathname beginning with `...' denotes a
3rd Berkeley DistributionNCHECK(8)
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ICHECK(8) System Manager's Manual ICHECK(8)NAME
icheck - file system storage consistency check
icheck [ -s ] [ -b numbers ] [ filesystem ]
Icheck examines a file system, builds a bit map of used blocks, and compares this bit map against the free list maintained on the file sys-
tem. If the file system is not specified, a set of default file systems is checked. The normal output of icheck includes a report of
The total number of files and the numbers of regular, directory, block special and character special files, quota nodes, and sym-
The total number of blocks in use and the numbers of single-, double-, and triple-indirect blocks and directory blocks.
The number of free blocks.
The number of blocks missing; i.e. not in any file nor in the free list.
The -s option causes icheck to ignore the actual free list and reconstruct a new one by rewriting the super-block of the file system. The
file system should be dismounted while this is done; if this is not possible (for example if the root file system has to be salvaged) care
should be taken that the system is quiescent and that it is rebooted immediately afterwards so that the old, bad in-core copy of the super-
block will not continue to be used. Notice also that the words in the super-block which indicate the size of the free list and of the i-
list are believed. If the super-block has been curdled these words will have to be patched. The -s option causes the normal output
reports to be suppressed.
Following the -b option is a list of block numbers; whenever any of the named blocks turns up in a file, a diagnostic is produced.
Icheck is faster if the raw version of the special file is used, since it reads the i-list many blocks at a time.
SEE ALSO filsys(5), clri(8), dcheck(8), fsck(8), ncheck(8)DIAGNOSTICS
For duplicate blocks and bad blocks (which lie outside the file system) icheck announces the difficulty, the i-number, and the kind of
block involved. If a read error is encountered, the block number of the bad block is printed and icheck considers it to contain 0. `Bad
freeblock' means that a block number outside the available space was encountered in the free list. `n dups in free' means that n blocks
were found in the free list which duplicate blocks either in some file or in the earlier part of the free list.
Since icheck is inherently two-pass in nature, extraneous diagnostics may be produced if applied to active file systems. Since default
file systems vary with installations, icheck should use fstab(5).
It believes even preposterous super-blocks and consequently can get core images.
3rd Berkeley DistributionICHECK(8)