Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

disklabel(5) [bsd man page]

DISKLABEL(5)							File Formats Manual						      DISKLABEL(5)

disklabel - disk pack label SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/disklabel.h> DESCRIPTION
Each disk or disk pack on a system may contain a disk label which provides detailed information about the geometry of the disk and the par- titions into which the disk is divided. It should be initialized when the disk is formatted, and may be changed later with the diskla- bel(8) program. This information is used by the system disk driver and by the bootstrap program to determine how to program the drive and where to find the filesystems on the disk partitions. Additional information is used by the filesystem in order to use the disk most effi- ciently and to locate important filesystem information. The description of each partition contains an identifier for the partition type (standard filesystem, swap area, etc.). The filesystem updates the in-core copy of the label if it contains incomplete information about the filesystem. The label is located in sector number LABELSECTOR of the drive, usually sector 0 where it may be found without any information about the disk geometry. It is at an offset LABELOFFSET from the beginning of the sector, to allow room for the initial bootstrap. The disk sector containing the label is normally made read-only so that it is not accidentally overwritten by pack-to-pack copies or swap operations; the DIOCWLABEL ioctl(2), which is done as needed by the disklabel(8) program. A copy of the in-core label for a disk can be obtained with the DIOCGDINFO ioctl(2); this works with a file descriptor for a block or char- acter (``raw'') device for any partition of the disk. The in-core copy of the label is set by the DIOCSDINFO ioctl(2). The offset of a partition cannot generally be changed while it is open, nor can it be made smaller while it is open. One exception is that any change is allowed if no label was found on the disk, and the driver was able to construct only a skeletal label without partition information. Finally, the DIOCWDINFO ioctl(2) operation sets the in-core label and then updates the on-disk label; there must be an existing label on the disk for this operation to succeed. Thus, the initial label for a disk or disk pack must be installed by writing to the raw disk. All of these operations are normally done using disklabel(8). The format of the disk label, as specified in <sys/disklabel.h> , is: /* * Disk description table, see disktab(5) */ #define _PATH_DISKTAB "/etc/disktab" /* * Each disk has a label which includes information about the hardware * disk geometry, filesystem partitions, and drive specific information. * The label is in block 0 or 1, possibly offset from the beginning * to leave room for a bootstrap, etc. */ /* These should be defined per controller/drive elsewhere, not here! */ #define LABELSECTOR 1 /* sector containing label */ #define LABELOFFSET 0 /* offset of label in sector */ #define DISKMAGIC ((u_long) 0x82564557) /* The disk magic number */ #define MAXPARTITIONS 8 /* * 2.11BSD's disklabels are different than 4.4BSD for a couple reasons: * * 1) D space is precious in the 2.11 kernel. Many of the fields do * not need to be 'long' (or even a 'short'), a 'short' (or 'char') * is more than adequate. If anyone ever ports the FFS to a PDP11 * changing the label format will be the least of the problems. * * 2) There is no need to support a bootblock more than 512 bytes long. * The hardware (disk bootroms) only read the first sector, thus the * label is always at sector 1 (the second half of the first file- * system block). * * Almost all of the fields have been retained but with reduced sizes. * This is for future expansion and to ease the porting of the various * utilities which use the disklabel structure. The 2.11 kernel uses * very little other than the partition tables. Indeed only the * partition tables are resident in the kernel address space, the actual * label block is allocated external to the kernel and mapped in as * needed. */ struct disklabel { u_long d_magic; /* the magic number */ u_char d_type; /* drive type */ u_char d_subtype; /* controller/d_type specific */ char d_typename[16]; /* type name, e.g. "eagle" */ /* * d_packname contains the pack identifier and is returned when * the disklabel is read off the disk or in-core copy. * d_boot0 is the (optional) name of the primary (block 0) bootstrap * as found in /mdec. This is returned when using * getdiskbyname(3) to retrieve the values from /etc/disktab. */ #if defined(KERNEL) || defined(STANDALONE) char d_packname[16]; /* pack identifier */ #else union { char un_d_packname[16]; /* pack identifier */ char *un_d_boot0; /* primary bootstrap name */ } d_un; #define d_packname d_un.un_d_packname #define d_boot0 d_un.un_d_boot0 #endif /* ! KERNEL or STANDALONE */ /* disk geometry: */ u_short d_secsize; /* # of bytes per sector */ u_short d_nsectors; /* # of data sectors per track */ u_short d_ntracks; /* # of tracks per cylinder */ u_short d_ncylinders; /* # of data cylinders per unit */ u_short d_secpercyl; /* # of data sectors per cylinder */ u_long d_secperunit; /* # of data sectors per unit */ /* * Spares (bad sector replacements) below * are not counted in d_nsectors or d_secpercyl. * Spare sectors are assumed to be physical sectors * which occupy space at the end of each track and/or cylinder. */ u_short d_sparespertrack; /* # of spare sectors per track */ u_short d_sparespercyl; /* # of spare sectors per cylinder */ /* * Alternate cylinders include maintenance, replacement, * configuration description areas, etc. */ u_short d_acylinders; /* # of alt. cylinders per unit */ /* hardware characteristics: */ /* * d_interleave, d_trackskew and d_cylskew describe perturbations * in the media format used to compensate for a slow controller. * Interleave is physical sector interleave, set up by the formatter * or controller when formatting. When interleaving is in use, * logically adjacent sectors are not physically contiguous, * but instead are separated by some number of sectors. * It is specified as the ratio of physical sectors traversed * per logical sector. Thus an interleave of 1:1 implies contiguous * layout, while 2:1 implies that logical sector 0 is separated * by one sector from logical sector 1. * d_trackskew is the offset of sector 0 on track N * relative to sector 0 on track N-1 on the same cylinder. * Finally, d_cylskew is the offset of sector 0 on cylinder N * relative to sector 0 on cylinder N-1. */ u_short d_rpm; /* rotational speed */ u_char d_interleave; /* hardware sector interleave */ u_char d_trackskew; /* sector 0 skew, per track */ u_char d_cylskew; /* sector 0 skew, per cylinder */ u_char d_headswitch; /* head swith time, usec */ u_short d_trkseek; /* track-to-track seek, msec */ u_short d_flags; /* generic flags */ #define NDDATA 5 u_long d_drivedata[NDDATA]; /* drive-type specific information */ #define NSPARE 5 u_long d_spare[NSPARE]; /* reserved for future use */ u_long d_magic2; /* the magic number (again) */ u_short d_checksum; /* xor of data incl. partitions */ /* filesystem and partition information: */ u_short d_npartitions; /* number of partitions in following */ u_short d_bbsize; /* size of boot area at sn0, bytes */ u_short d_sbsize; /* max size of fs superblock, bytes */ struct partition { /* the partition table */ u_long p_size; /* number of sectors in partition */ u_long p_offset; /* starting sector */ u_short p_fsize; /* filesystem basic fragment size */ u_char p_fstype; /* filesystem type, see below */ u_char p_frag; /* filesystem fragments per block */ } d_partitions[MAXPARTITIONS]; /* actually may be more */ }; /* d_type values: */ #define DTYPE_SMD 1 /* SMD, XSMD; VAX hp/up */ #define DTYPE_MSCP 2 /* MSCP */ #define DTYPE_DEC 3 /* other DEC (rk, rl) */ #define DTYPE_SCSI 4 /* SCSI */ #define DTYPE_ESDI 5 /* ESDI interface */ #define DTYPE_ST506 6 /* ST506 etc. */ #define DTYPE_FLOPPY 7 /* floppy */ #ifdef DKTYPENAMES static char *dktypenames[] = { "unknown", "SMD", "MSCP", "old DEC", "SCSI", "ESDI", "ST506", "floppy", 0 }; #define DKMAXTYPES (sizeof(dktypenames) / sizeof(dktypenames[0]) - 1) #endif /* * Filesystem type and version. * Used to interpret other filesystem-specific * per-partition information. */ #define FS_UNUSED 0 /* unused */ #define FS_SWAP 1 /* swap */ #define FS_V6 2 /* Sixth Edition */ #define FS_V7 3 /* Seventh Edition */ #define FS_SYSV 4 /* System V */ /* * 2.11BSD uses type 5 filesystems even though block numbers are 4 bytes * (rather than the packed 3 byte format) and the directory structure is * that of 4.3BSD (long filenames). */ #define FS_V71K 5 /* V7 with 1K blocks (4.1,2.9,2.11) */ #define FS_V8 6 /* Eighth Edition, 4K blocks */ #define FS_BSDFFS 7 /* 4.2BSD fast file system */ #define FS_MSDOS 8 /* MSDOS file system */ #define FS_BSDLFS 9 /* 4.4BSD log file system */ #define FS_OTHER 10 /* in use, but unknown/unsupported */ #define FS_HPFS 11 /* OS/2 high-performance filesystem */ #define FS_ISO9660 12 /* ISO 9660, normally CD-ROM */ #ifdef DKTYPENAMES static char *fstypenames[] = { "unused", "swap", "Version 6", "Version 7", "System V", "2.11BSD", "Eighth Edition", "4.2BSD", "MSDOS", "4.4LFS", "unknown", "HPFS", "ISO9660", 0 }; #define FSMAXTYPES (sizeof(fstypenames) / sizeof(fstypenames[0]) - 1) #endif /* * flags shared by various drives: */ #define D_REMOVABLE 0x01 /* removable media */ #define D_ECC 0x02 /* supports ECC */ #define D_BADSECT 0x04 /* supports bad sector forw. */ #define D_RAMDISK 0x08 /* disk emulator */ /* * Structure used to perform a format * or other raw operation, returning data * and/or register values. * Register identification and format * are device- and driver-dependent. */ struct format_op { char *df_buf; int df_count; /* value-result */ daddr_t df_startblk; int df_reg[8]; /* result */ }; /* * Structure used internally to retrieve * information about a partition on a disk. */ struct partinfo { struct disklabel *disklab; struct partition *part; }; /* * Disk-specific ioctls. */ /* get and set disklabel; DIOCGPART used internally */ #define DIOCGDINFO _IOR(d, 101, struct disklabel)/* get */ #define DIOCSDINFO _IOW(d, 102, struct disklabel)/* set */ #define DIOCWDINFO _IOW(d, 103, struct disklabel)/* set, update disk */ #define DIOCGPART _IOW(d, 104, struct partinfo) /* get partition */ /* do format operation, read or write */ #define DIOCRFORMAT _IOWR(d, 105, struct format_op) #define DIOCWFORMAT _IOWR(d, 106, struct format_op) #define DIOCSSTEP _IOW(d, 107, int) /* set step rate */ #define DIOCSRETRIES _IOW(d, 108, int) /* set # of retries */ #define DIOCWLABEL _IOW(d, 109, int) /* write en/disable label */ #define DIOCSBAD _IOW(d, 110, struct dkbad) /* set kernel dkbad */ #ifndef KERNEL struct disklabel *getdiskbyname(); #endif SEE ALSO
disklabel(8) 3rd Berkeley Distribution April 21, 1995 DISKLABEL(5)
Man Page