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ip(4p) [bsd man page]

IP(4P)																	    IP(4P)

NAME
ip - Internet Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto); DESCRIPTION
IP is the transport layer protocol used by the Internet protocol family. Options may be set at the IP level when using higher-level proto- cols that are based on IP (such as TCP and UDP). It may also be accessed through a "raw socket" when developing new protocols, or special purpose applications. A single generic option is supported at the IP level, IP_OPTIONS, that may be used to provide IP options to be transmitted in the IP header of each outgoing packet. Options are set with setsockopt(2) and examined with getsockopt(2). The format of IP options to be sent is that specified by the IP protocol specification, with one exception: the list of addresses for Source Route options must include the first-hop gateway at the beginning of the list of gateways. The first-hop gateway address will be extracted from the option list and the size adjusted accordingly before use. IP options may be used with any socket type in the Internet family. Raw IP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). If proto is 0, the default protocol IPPROTO_RAW is used for outgoing packets, and only incoming packets destined for that protocol are received. If proto is non-zero, that protocol number will be used on outgoing packets and to filter incoming packets. Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address and the protocol number the socket is created with). Incoming packets are received with IP header and options intact. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists. The following errors specific to IP may occur when setting or getting IP options: [EINVAL] An unknown socket option name was given. [EINVAL] The IP option field was improperly formed; an option field was shorter than the minimum value or longer than the option buf- fer provided. SEE ALSO
getsockopt(2), send(2), recv(2), intro(4N), icmp(4P), inet(4F) 4.2 Berkeley Distribution May 16, 1986 IP(4P)

Check Out this Related Man Page

ICMP(4) 						   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 						   ICMP(4)

NAME
icmp -- Internet Control Message Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> int socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto); DESCRIPTION
ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by IP and the Internet protocol family. It may be accessed through a ``raw socket'' for network monitoring and diagnostic functions. The proto parameter to the socket call to create an ICMP socket is obtained from getprotobyname(3). ICMP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address). Incoming packets are received with the IP header and options intact. Non-privileged ICMP ICMP sockets can be opened with the SOCK_DGRAM socket type without requiring root privileges. The synopsis is the following: socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_ICMP) This can be used by non root privileged processes to send ICMP echo requests to gauge the quality of the connectivity to a host, to receive ICMP destination unreachable message for path MTU discovery, or to receveive time exceeded message for traceroute. Datagram oriented ICMP sockets offer a subset of the functionality available to raw ICMP sockets. Only IMCP request messages of the following types can be sent: ICMP_ECHO, ICMP_TSTAMP or ICMP_MASKREQ. The code field must be the value zero (0). The minimal length of an ICMP message request is eight (8) octets. The following IP level option can be used with datagram oriented ICMP sockets: IP_OPTIONS IP_HDRINCL IP_TOS IP_TTL IP_RECVOPTS IP_RECVRETOPTS IP_RECVDSTADDR IP_RETOPTS IP_MULTICAST_IF IP_MULTICAST_TTL IP_MULTICAST_LOOP IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP IP_MULTICAST_VIF IP_PORTRANGE IP_RECVIF IP_IPSEC_POLICY IP_STRIPHDR When the IP option IP_HDRINCL is used, the provided IP header must obey the following rules: ip_v Must be IPVERSION (4); ip_hl Between 5 and 10 (inclusive); ip_tos Any value; ip_len Must be the total length of IP datagram (IP header + ICMP message); ip_id Must be zero, will be automatically set; ip_off Must be zero, will be automatically set; ip_ttl Any value; ip_p Must be IPPROTO_IP; ip_sum Value ignored, will be automatically set; ip_src Must be an IP address currently assigned to one of the local interface or INADDR_ANY; ip_dst Any address; ip_opts Any option. The maximum length of a IMCP message that can be sent is controlled by the sysctl variable net.inet.raw.maxdgram. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists; [EINVAL] when an invalid value is used with IMCP datagram socket for a field of the IP or ICMP header. SEE ALSO
send(2), recv(2), intro(4), inet(4), ip(4) HISTORY
The icmp protocol appeared in 4.3BSD. 4.3 Berkeley Distribution June 19, 2002 4.3 Berkeley Distribution
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