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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #467
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In computer networking, telecommunication and information theory, broadcasting is a method of transferring a message to all recipients using reverse polish notation.
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idp(4p) [bsd man page]

IDP(4P) 																   IDP(4P)

NAME
idp - Xerox Internet Datagram Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netns/ns.h> #include <netns/idp.h> s = socket(AF_NS, SOCK_DGRAM, 0); DESCRIPTION
IDP is a simple, unreliable datagram protocol which is used to support the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction for the Internet protocol family. IDP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the recv(2) or read(2) and send(2) or write(2) system calls may be used). Xerox protocols are built vertically on top of IDP. Thus, IDP address formats are identical to those used by SPP. Note that the IDP port space is the same as the SPP port space (i.e. a IDP port may be "connected" to a SPP port, with certain options enabled below). In addi- tion broadcast packets may be sent (assuming the underlying network supports this) by using a reserved "broadcast address"; this address is network interface dependent. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRINUSE] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a port which has already been allocated; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists. SOCKET OPTIONS
[SO_HEADERS_ON_INPUT] When set, the first 30 bytes of any data returned from a read or recv from will be the initial 30 bytes of the IDP packet, as described by struct idp { u_short idp_sum; u_short idp_len; u_char idp_tc; u_char idp_pt; struct ns_addr idp_dna; struct ns_addr idp_sna; }; This allows the user to determine the packet type, and whether the packet was a multi-cast packet or directed specifically at the local host. When requested, gives the current state of the option, (NSP_RAWIN or 0). [SO_HEADERS_ON_OUTPUT] When set, the first 30 bytes of any data sent will be the initial 30 bytes of the IDP packet. This allows the user to determine the packet type, and whether the packet should be multi-cast packet or directed specifically at the local host. You can also misrepresent the sender of the packet. When requested, gives the current state of the option. (NSP_RAWOUT or 0). [SO_DEFAULT_HEADERS] The user provides the kernel an IDP header, from which it gleans the Packet Type. When requested, the kernel will provide an IDP header, showing the default packet type, and local and foreign addresses, if connected. [SO_ALL_PACKETS] When set, this option defeats automatic processing of Error packets, and Sequence Protocol packets. [SO_SEQNO] When requested, this returns a sequence number which is not likely to be repeated until the machine crashes or a very long time has passed. It is useful in constructing Packet Exchange Protocol packets. SEE ALSO
send(2), recv(2), intro(4N), ns(4F) 4.3 Berkeley Distribution July 30, 1985 IDP(4P)

Check Out this Related Man Page

UDP(4)							   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 						    UDP(4)

NAME
udp -- Internet User Datagram Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> int socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0); DESCRIPTION
UDP is a simple, unreliable datagram protocol which is used to support the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction for the Internet protocol family. UDP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the recv(2) or read(2) and send(2) or write(2) system calls may be used). UDP address formats are identical to those used by TCP. In particular UDP provides a port identifier in addition to the normal Internet address format. Note that the UDP port space is separate from the TCP port space (i.e. a UDP port may not be ``connected'' to a TCP port). In addition broadcast packets may be sent (assuming the underlying network supports this) by using a reserved ``broadcast address''; this address is network interface dependent. Options at the IP transport level may be used with UDP; see ip(4). DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRINUSE] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a port which has already been allocated; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists. SEE ALSO
getsockopt(2), recv(2), send(2), socket(2), intro(4), inet(4), ip(4) HISTORY
The udp protocol appeared in 4.2BSD. 4.2 Berkeley Distribution June 5, 1993 4.2 Berkeley Distribution

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