Visit Our UNIX and Linux User Community

Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Test Your Knowledge in Computers #105
Difficulty: Easy
The programming interface, file abstraction, built-in networking and persistent background processing are all features and capabilities supported by a Unix or Linux OS.
True or False?
Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

ip(4p) [bsd man page]

IP(4P)																	    IP(4P)

NAME
ip - Internet Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto); DESCRIPTION
IP is the transport layer protocol used by the Internet protocol family. Options may be set at the IP level when using higher-level proto- cols that are based on IP (such as TCP and UDP). It may also be accessed through a "raw socket" when developing new protocols, or special purpose applications. A single generic option is supported at the IP level, IP_OPTIONS, that may be used to provide IP options to be transmitted in the IP header of each outgoing packet. Options are set with setsockopt(2) and examined with getsockopt(2). The format of IP options to be sent is that specified by the IP protocol specification, with one exception: the list of addresses for Source Route options must include the first-hop gateway at the beginning of the list of gateways. The first-hop gateway address will be extracted from the option list and the size adjusted accordingly before use. IP options may be used with any socket type in the Internet family. Raw IP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). If proto is 0, the default protocol IPPROTO_RAW is used for outgoing packets, and only incoming packets destined for that protocol are received. If proto is non-zero, that protocol number will be used on outgoing packets and to filter incoming packets. Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address and the protocol number the socket is created with). Incoming packets are received with IP header and options intact. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists. The following errors specific to IP may occur when setting or getting IP options: [EINVAL] An unknown socket option name was given. [EINVAL] The IP option field was improperly formed; an option field was shorter than the minimum value or longer than the option buf- fer provided. SEE ALSO
getsockopt(2), send(2), recv(2), intro(4N), icmp(4P), inet(4F) 4.2 Berkeley Distribution May 16, 1986 IP(4P)

Check Out this Related Man Page

udp(4p) 																   udp(4p)

Name
       udp - Internet User Datagram Protocol

Syntax
       #include <sys/socket.h>
       #include <netinet/in.h>

       s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

Description
       UDP  is	a  simple,  unreliable datagram protocol that is used to support the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction for the Internet protocol family.  UDP
       sockets are connectionless and are normally used with the and calls, though the call can also be used to fix  the  destination  for  future
       packets (in which case the or and or system calls may be used).

       UDP  address  formats are identical to those used by TCP.  In particular, UDP provides a port identifier in addition to the normal Internet
       address format.	Note that the UDP port space is separate from the TCP port space (for example,	a UDP port may not be ``connected''  to  a
       TCP  port).   In  addition  broadcast  packets  can be sent (assuming the underlying network supports this) by using a reserved ``broadcast
       address''; this address is network interface dependent.	The SO_BROADCAST option must be set on the socket for broadcasting to succeed.

Diagnostics
       A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned:

       [EISCONN]      Try to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send  a  datagram  with  the  destination
		      address specified and the socket already connected.

       [ENOTCONN]     Try to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket has not been connected.

       [ENOBUFS]      The system runs out of memory for an internal data structure.

       [EADDRINUSE]   An attempt is made to create a socket with a port that has already been allocated.

       [EADDRNOTAVAIL]
		      An attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists.

See Also
       getsockopt(2), send(2), socket(2) recv(2), intro(4n), inet(4f)

																	   udp(4p)

Featured Tech Videos