Visit Our UNIX and Linux User Community

Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Test Your Knowledge in Computers #423
Difficulty: Medium
C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
True or False?
Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

de(4) [bsd man page]

DE(4)							     Kernel Interfaces Manual							     DE(4)

NAME
de - DEC DEUNA 10 Mb/s Ethernet interface SYNOPSIS
/sys/conf/SYSTEM: NDE de_controllers # DEUNA DESCRIPTION
The de interface provides access to a 10 Mb/s Ethernet network through a Digital Equipment UNIBUS Network Adapter (DEUNA). Each of the host's network addresses is specified at boot time with an SIOCSIFADDR ioctl. The de interface employs the address resolution protocol described in arp(4P) to dynamically map between Internet and Ethernet addresses on the local network. The interface normally tries to use a ``trailer'' encapsulation to minimize copying data on input and output. The use of trailers is nego- tiated with ARP. This negotiation may be disabled, on a per-interface basis, by setting the IFF_NOTRAILERS flag with an SIOCSIFFLAGS ioctl. DIAGNOSTICS
de%d: hardware address %s. This is a normal autoconfiguration message noting the 6 byte physical ethernet address of the adapter. de%d: oerror, flags=%b tdrerr=%b (len=%d). The hardware indicated an error in transmitting a packet to the cable. The status and error flags are reported. de%d: ierror, flags=%b lenerr=%b (len=%d). The hardware indicated an error in reading a packet from the cable. The status and error flags are reported. de%d: can't handle af%d. The interface was handed a message with addresses formatted in an unsuitable address family; the packet was dropped. de%d: buffer unavailable. The interface received more packets than it had buffers allocated to receive them. de%d: address change failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. The interface was unable to reprogram its physical ethernet address. This may happen with very early models of the interface. This facility is used only when the controller is not the first network interface configured for XNS. The following messages indicate a probable hardware error performing the indicated operation during autoconfiguration or initialization. The two control and status registers should indicate the nature of the failure. See the hardware manual for details. de%d: reset failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. de%d: ppcb failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. de%d: read addr failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. de%d: wtring failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. de%d: wtmode failed, csr0=%b csr1=%b. SEE ALSO
intro(4N), inet(4F), arp(4P) 3rd Berkeley Distribution August 20, 1987 DE(4)

Check Out this Related Man Page

EC(4)							     Kernel Interfaces Manual							     EC(4)

NAME
ec - 3Com 10 Mb/s Ethernet interface SYNOPSIS
/sys/conf/SYSTEM: NEC ec_controllers # 3Com Ethernet DESCRIPTION
The ec interface provides access to a 10 Mb/s Ethernet network through a 3com controller. The hardware has 32 kilobytes of dual-ported memory on the UNIBUS. This memory is used for internal buffering by the board, and the inter- face code reads the buffer contents directly through the UNIBUS. The address of this memory is given in the flags field in the configura- tion file. The first interface normally has its memory at Unibus address 0. Each of the host's network addresses is specified at boot time with an SIOCSIFADDR ioctl. The ec interface employs the address resolution protocol described in arp(4P) to dynamically map between Internet and Ethernet addresses on the local network. The interface normally tries to use a ``trailer'' encapsulation to minimize copying data on input and output. The use of trailers is nego- tiated with ARP. This negotiation may be disabled, on a per-interface basis, by setting the IFF_NOTRAILERS flag with an SIOCSIFFLAGS ioctl. The interface software implements an exponential backoff algorithm when notified of a collision on the cable. This algorithm utilizes a 16-bit mask and the VAX-11's interval timer in calculating a series of random backoff values. The algorithm is as follows: 1. Initialize the mask to be all 1's. 2. If the mask is zero, 16 retries have been made and we give up. 3. Shift the mask left one bit and formulate a backoff by masking the interval timer with the smaller of the complement of this mask and a 5-bit mask, resulting in a pseudo-random number between 0 and 31. This produces the number of slot times to delay, where a slot is 51 microseconds. 4. Use the value calculated in step 3 to delay before retransmitting the packet. The delay is done in a software busy loop. DIAGNOSTICS
ec%d: send error. After 16 retransmissions using the exponential backoff algorithm described above, the packet was dropped. ec%d: input error (offset=%d). The hardware indicated an error in reading a packet off the cable or an illegally sized packet. The buffer offset value is printed for debugging purposes. ec%d: can't handle af%d. The interface was handed a message with addresses formatted in an unsuitable address family; the packet was dropped. SEE ALSO
intro(4N), inet(4F), arp(4P) BUGS
The hardware is not capable of talking to itself. The software implements local sending and broadcast by sending such packets to the loop interface. This is a kludge. Backoff delays are done in a software busy loop. This can degrade the system if the network experiences frequent collisions. 3rd Berkeley Distribution August 20, 1987 EC(4)

Featured Tech Videos