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fopen(3s) [bsd man page]

FOPEN(3S)																 FOPEN(3S)

NAME
fopen, freopen, fdopen - open a stream SYNOPSIS
#include <stdio.h> FILE *fopen(filename, type) char *filename, *type; FILE *freopen(filename, type, stream) char *filename, *type; FILE *stream; FILE *fdopen(fildes, type) char *type; DESCRIPTION
Fopen opens the file named by filename and associates a stream with it. Fopen returns a pointer to be used to identify the stream in sub- sequent operations. Type is a character string having one of the following values: "r" open for reading "w" create for writing "a" append: open for writing at end of file, or create for writing In addition, each type may be followed by a "+" to have the file opened for reading and writing. "r+" positions the stream at the begin- ning of the file, "w+" creates or truncates it, and "a+" positions it at the end. Both reads and writes may be used on read/write streams, with the limitation that an fseek, rewind, or reading an end-of-file must be used between a read and a write or vice-versa. Freopen substitutes the named file in place of the open stream. It returns the original value of stream. The original stream is closed. Freopen is typically used to attach the preopened constant names, stdin, stdout, stderr, to specified files. Fdopen associates a stream with a file descriptor obtained from open, dup, creat, or pipe(2). The type of the stream must agree with the mode of the open file. SEE ALSO
open(2), fclose(3) DIAGNOSTICS
Fopen and freopen return the pointer NULL if filename cannot be accessed, if too many files are already open, or if other resources needed cannot be allocated. BUGS
Fdopen is not portable to systems other than UNIX. The read/write types do not exist on all systems. Those systems without read/write modes will probably treat the type as if the "+" was not present. These are unreliable in any event. In order to support the same number of open files as does the system, fopen must allocate additional memory for data structures using cal- loc after 20 files have been opened. This confuses some programs which use their own memory allocators. An undocumented routine, f_preal- loc, may be called to force immediate allocation of all internal memory except for buffers. 4th Berkeley Distribution May 27, 1986 FOPEN(3S)

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fopen(3s)																 fopen(3s)

Name
       fopen, freopen, fdopen - open a stream

Syntax
       #include <stdio.h>

       FILE *fopen (filename, type)
       char *filename, *type;

       FILE *freopen (filename, type, stream)
       char *filename, *type;
       FILE *stream;

       FILE *fdopen (fildes, type)
       int fildes;
       char *type;

Description
       The  routine opens the file named by filename and associates a stream with it.  The routine returns a pointer to the FILE structure associ-
       ated with the stream.

       The filename points to a character string that contains the name of the file to be opened.

       The type is a character string having one of the following values:

	  "r"	    Open for reading

	  "w"	    Truncate or create for writing

	  "a"	    Append; open for writing at end of file, or create for writing

	  "A"	    Append with no overwrite; open for writing at end-of-file, or create for writing

	  "r+"	    Open for reading and writing

	  "w+"	    Truncate or create for reading and writing

	  "a+"	    Append; open or create for reading and writing at end-of-file

	  "A+"	    Append with no overwrite, open or create for update at end-of-file

       The letter "b" can also follow r, w, or a. In some C implementations, the "b" is needed to indicate a  binary  file,  however,  it  is  not
       needed in ULTRIX.  If "+" is used, the "b" may occur on either side, as in "rb+" or "w+b".

       The  routine  substitutes  the named file in place of the open stream.  The original stream is closed, regardless of whether the open ulti-
       mately succeeds.  The routine returns a pointer to the FILE structure associated with stream.

       The routine is typically used to attach the preopened streams associated with stdin, stdout and stderr to other files.

       The routine associates a stream with a file descriptor.	File descriptors are obtained from or which open files but do not return  pointers
       to  a  FILE structure stream.  Streams are necessary input for many of the Section 3s library routines.	The type of stream must agree with
       the mode of the open file.

       When a file is opened for update, both input and output may be done on the resulting stream.  However, output may not be directly  followed
       by  input  without  an  intervening  or and input may not be directly followed by output without an intervening or an input operation which
       encounters end-of-file.

       When a file is opened for append with no overwrite (that is when type is "A" or "A+"), it is impossible to overwrite information already in
       the  file.  The routine may be used to reposition the file pointer to any position in the file, but when output is written to the file, the
       current file pointer is disregarded.  All output is written at the end of the file and causes the file pointer to be  repositioned  at  the
       end  of	the  output.   If  two separate processes open the same file for append, each process may write freely to the file without fear of
       destroying output being written by the other.  The output from the two processes will be intermixed in the file in the order in which it is
       written.

Return Values
       The and routines return a NULL pointer on failure.

Environment
   SYSTEM_V
       When  your  program is compiled using the System V environment, append with no overwrite is specified by using the "a" or "a+" type string,
       and the "A" and "A+" type strings are not allowed.

   POSIX
       In the POSIX environment, the "a" and "a+" strings, and the "A" and "A+" strings specify append with no overwrite.

See Also
       creat(2), dup(2), open(2), pipe(2), fclose(3s), fseek(3s).

																	 fopen(3s)
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