BSD 2.11 - man page for lstat (bsd section 2)

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STAT(2) 										  STAT(2)

       stat, lstat, fstat - get file status

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>

       stat(path, buf)
       char *path;
       struct stat *buf;

       lstat(path, buf)
       char *path;
       struct stat *buf;

       fstat(fd, buf)
       int fd;
       struct stat *buf;

       Stat  obtains  information  about the file path.  Read, write or execute permission of the
       named file is not required, but all directories listed in the path  name  leading  to  the
       file must be reachable.

       Lstat  is  like	stat except in the case where the named file is a symbolic link, in which
       case lstat returns information about the link, while stat returns  information  about  the
       file the link references.

       Fstat  obtains the same information about an open file referenced by the argument descrip-
       tor, such as would be obtained by an open call.

       Buf is a pointer to a stat structure into which information is placed concerning the file.
       The contents of the structure pointed to by buf

	    struct stat {
		 dev_t	st_dev; /* device inode resides on */
		 ino_t	st_ino; /* this inode's number */
		 u_short	st_mode;/* protection */
		 short	st_nlink;/* number or hard links to the file */
		 short	st_uid; /* user-id of owner */
		 short	st_gid; /* group-id of owner */
		 dev_t	st_rdev;/* the device type, for inode that is device */
		 off_t	st_size;/* total size of file */
		 time_t st_atime;/* file last access time */
		 int	st_spare1;
		 time_t st_mtime;/* file last modify time */
		 int	st_spare2;
		 time_t st_ctime;/* file last status change time */
		 int	st_spare3;
		 long	st_blksize;/* optimal blocksize for file system i/o ops */
		 long	st_blocks;/* actual number of blocks allocated */
		 long	st_spare4[2];

       st_atime    Time  when file data was last read or modified.  Changed by the following sys-
		   tem calls: mknod(2), utimes(2), read(2), and write(2).  For reasons	of  effi-
		   ciency,  st_atime is not set when a directory is searched, although this would
		   be more logical.

       st_mtime    Time when data was last modified.  It is not set by changes of  owner,  group,
		   link  count,  or  mode.   Changed  by  the  following  system calls: mknod(2),
		   utimes(2), write(2).

       st_ctime    Time when file status was last changed.  It is set both both  by  writing  and
		   changing  the  i-node.   Changed  by  the  following  system  calls:  chmod(2)
		   chown(2), link(2), mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2), write(2).

       The status information word st_mode has bits:
	    #define S_IFMT  0170000  /* type of file */
	    #define    S_IFDIR	     0040000/* directory */
	    #define    S_IFCHR	     0020000/* character special */
	    #define    S_IFBLK	     0060000/* block special */
	    #define    S_IFREG	     0100000/* regular */
	    #define    S_IFLNK	     0120000/* symbolic link */
	    #define    S_IFSOCK      0140000/* socket */
	    #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on execution */
	    #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
	    #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
	    #define S_IREAD 0000400  /* read permission, owner */
	    #define S_IWRITE	     0000200/* write permission, owner */
	    #define S_IEXEC 0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */

       The mode bits 0000070 and 0000007 encode group and others permissions (see chmod(2)).

       Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
       and errno is set to indicate the error.

       Stat and lstat will fail if one or more of the following are true:

       [ENOTDIR]      A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

       [EINVAL]       The pathname contains a character with the high-order bit set.

       [ENAMETOOLONG] A  component  of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or an entire path name
		      exceeded 1023 characters.

       [ENOENT]       The named file does not exist.

       [EACCES]       Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.

       [ELOOP]	      Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname.

       [EFAULT]       Buf or name points to an invalid address.

       [EIO]	      An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

       Fstat will fail if one or both of the following are true:

       [EBADF]	      Fildes is not a valid open file descriptor.

       [EFAULT]       Buf points to an invalid address.

       [EIO]	      An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

       The fields in the stat structure currently marked st_spare1, st_spare2, and st_spare3  are
       present	in  preparation  for  inode time stamps expanding to 64 bits.  This, however, can
       break certain programs that depend on the  time	stamps	being  contiguous  (in	calls  to

       chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2)

       Applying  fstat	to  a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd buffer, except for the
       blocksize field, and a unique device and inode number.

4th Berkeley Distribution		   May 12, 1986 				  STAT(2)
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