svc.startd - Service Management Facility master restarter
svc.startd is the master restarter daemon for Service Management Facility (SMF) and the default restarter for all services. svc.startd
starts, stops, and restarts services based on administrative requests, system failures, or application failures.
svc.startd maintains service state, as well as being responsible for managing faults in accordance with the dependencies of each service.
svc.startd is invoked automatically during system startup. It is restarted if any failures occur. svc.startd should never be invoked
See smf_restarter(5) for information on configuration and behavior common to all restarters.
svcs(1) reports status for all services managed by the Service Configuration Facility. svcadm(1M) allows manipulation of service instances
with respect to the service's restarter.
Environment variables with the "SMF_" prefix are reserved and may be overwritten.
svc.startd supplies the "SMF_" environment variables specified in smf_method(5) to the method. PATH is set to "/usr/sbin:/usr/bin" by
default. By default, all other environment variables supplied to svc.startd are those inherited from init(1M).
Duplicate entries are reduced to a single entry. The value used is undefined. Environment entries that are not prefixed with "<name>=" are
svc.startd is not configured by command line options. Instead, configuration is read from the service configuration repository. You can use
svccfg(1M) to set all options and properties.
The following configuration variables in the options property group are available to developers and administrators:
An astring (as defined in scf_value_is_type; see scf_value_is_type(3SCF)) that describes the default level of messages to print to the
console during boot. The supported message options include quiet and verbose. The quiet option prints minimal messages to console dur-
ing boot. The verbose option prints a single message per service started to indicate success or failure. You can use the boot -m
option to override the boot_messages setting at boot time. See kernel(1M).
Control the level of framework and service logging of svc.startd. An astring (as defined in scf_value_is_type; see
scf_value_is_type(3SCF)) that describes the default level of messages to print to the console during boot. The supported message
options include quiet, verbose, and debug. The quiet option prints standard per-service output and error messages requiring adminis-
trative intervention. The verbose option prints standard per-service output with more informational messages. The debug option prints
standard per-service output and all svc.startd messages to log.
An FMRI which determines the milestone used as the default boot level. Acceptable options include only the major milestones:
or the special values all or none. all represents an idealized milestone that depends on every service. none is a special milestone
where no services are running apart from the master svc:/system/svc/restarter:default. By default, svc.startd uses all, a synthetic
milestone that depends on every service. If this property is specified, it overrides any initdefault setting in inittab(4).
Indicates that a reconfiguration reboot has been requested. Services with actions that must key off of a reconfiguration reboot may
check that this property exists and is set to 1 to confirm a reconfiguration boot has been requested.
This property is managed by svc.startd and should not be modified by the administrator.
Configuration errors, such as disabling svc.startd are logged by syslog, but ignored.
Services managed by svc.startd can appear in any of the states described in smf(5). The state definitions are unmodified by this restarter.
In addition to any logging done by the managed service, svc.startd provides a common set of service reporting and logging mechanisms.
Reporting properties svc.startd updates a common set of properties on all services it manages. These properties are a common interface that
can be used to take action based on service instance health. The svcs(1) command can be used to easily display these properties.
The current and next (if currently in transition) state for an instance.
A caption detailing additional information about the current instance state. The auxiliary state available for services managed by
The time when the current state was reached.
The primary process contract ID, if any, that under which the service instance is executing.
By default, svc.startd provides logging of significant restarter actions for the service as well as method standard output and standard
error file descriptors to /var/svc/log/service:instance.log. The level of restarter action logging is specified by the options/logging
When developing or configuring a service managed by svc.startd, a common set of properties are used to affect the interaction between the
service instance and the restarter.
The general form of methods for the fork/exec model provided by svc.startd are presented in smf_method(5). The following methods are sup-
ported as required or optional by services managed by svc.startd.
Reload any appropriate configuration parameters from the repository or config file, without interrupting service. This is often imple-
mented using SIGHUP for system daemons. If the service is unable to recognize configuration changes without a restart, no refresh
method is provided.
This method is optional.
Start the service. Return success only after the application is available to consumers. Fail if a conflicting instance is already run-
ning, or if the service is unable to start.
This method is required.
Stop the service. In some cases, the stop method can be invoked when some or all of the service has already been stopped. Only return
an error if the service is not entirely stopped on method return.
This method is required.
If the service does not need to take any action in a required method, it must specify the :true token for that method.
svc.startd honors any method context specified for the service or any specific method. The method expansion tokens described in
smf_method(5) are available for use in all methods invoked by svc.startd.
An overview of the general properties is available in smf(5). The specific way in which these general properties interacts with svc.startd
If enabled is set to true, the restarter attempts to start the service once all its dependencies are satisfied. If set to false, the
service remains in the disabled state, not running.
If this FMRI property is empty or set to svc:/system/svc/restarter:default, the service is managed by svc.startd. Otherwise, the
restarter specified is responsible (once it is available) for managing the service.
If single_instance is set to true, svc.startd only allows one instance of this service to transition to online or degraded at any time.
Additionally, svc.startd managed services can define the optional properties listed below in the startd property group.
The duration property defines the service's model. It can be set to transient, child also known as "wait" model services, or contract
The ignore_error property, if set, specifies a comma-separated list of ignored events. Legitimate string values in that list are core
and signal. The default is to restart on all errors.
The need_session property, if set to true, indicates that the instance should be launched in its own session. The default is not to do
The utmpx_prefix string property defines that the instance requires a valid utmpx entry prior to start method execution. The default is
not to create a utmpx entry.
svc.startd assumes that a method has failed if it returns a non-zero exit code. If $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG or $SMF_EXIT_ERR_FATAL is returned,
svc.startd immediately places the service in the maintenance state. For all other failures, svc.startd places the service in the offline
state.If a service is offline and its dependencies are satisfied, svc.startd tries again to start the service (see smf(5)).
If three method failures happen in a row, or if the service is restarting more than once a second, svc.startd places the service in the
The conditions of service failure are defined by a combination of the service model (defined by the startd/duration property) and the value
of the startd/ignore_error property.
A contract model service fails if any of the following conditions occur:
o all processes in the service exit
o any processes in the service produce a core dump
o a process outside the service sends a service process a fatal signal (for example, an administrator terminates a service process with
the pkill command)
The last two conditions may be ignored by the service by specifying core and/or signal in startd/ignore_error.
Defining a service as transient means that svc.startd does not track processes for that service. Thus, the potential faults described for
contract model services are not considered failures for transient services. A transient service only enters the maintenance state if one of
the method failure conditions occurs.
"Wait" model services are restarted whenever the child process associated with the service exits. A child process that exits is not consid-
ered an error for "wait" model services, and repeated failures do not lead to a transition to maintenance state.
svc.startd continues to provide support for services invoked during the startup run level transitions. Each /etc/rc?.d directory is pro-
cessed after all managed services which constitute the equivalent run level milestone have transitioned to the online state. Standard init
scripts placed in the /etc/rc?.d directories are run in the order of their sequence numbers.
The milestone to run-level mapping is:
Multi-user with network services(3)
Additionally, svc.startd gives these legacy services visibility in SMF by inserting an instance per script into the repository. These
legacy instances are visible using standard SMF interfaces such as svcs(1), always appear in the LEGACY-RUN state, cannot be modified, and
can not be specified as dependencies of other services. The initial start time of the legacy service is captured as a convenience for the
/var/svc/log Directory where svc.startd stores log files.
/etc/svc/volatile Directory where svc.startd stores log files in early stages of boot, before /var is mounted read-write.
Example 1: Turning on Verbose Logging
To turn on verbose logging, type the following:
# /usr/sbin/svccfg -s system/svc/restarter:default
svc:/system/svc/restarter:default> addpg options application
svc:/system/svc/restarter:default> setprop options/logging =
This request will take effect on the next restart of svc.startd.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
|Availability |SUNWcsu |
svcs(1), svcprop(1), kernel(1M), init(1M), svcadm(1M), svccfg(1M), svc.configd(1M), setsid(2), libscf(3LIB), scf_value_is_type(3SCF), con-
tract(4), init.d(4), process(4), inittab(4), attributes(5), smf(5), smf_method(5)
2 Aug 2005 svc.startd(1M)