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BSD 2.11 - man page for printf (bsd section 1)

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PRINTF(1)										PRINTF(1)

NAME
       printf - formatted output

SYNOPSIS
       printf format [ arguments ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       Printf  formats	and  prints  its arguments, after the first, under control of the format.
       The format is a character string which contains three types of objects: plain  characters,
       which are simply copied to standard output, character escape sequences which are converted
       and copied to the standard output, and format specifications, each of which causes  print-
       ing of the next successive argument.

       The arguments after the first are treated as strings if the corresponding format is either
       c or s; otherwise it is evaluated as a C constant, with the following extensions:

       o      A leading plus or minus sign is allowed.

       o      If the leading character is a single or double quote, or	not  a	digit,	plus,  or
	      minus sign, the value is the ASCII code of the next character.

       The  format  string  is	reused as often as necessary to satisfy the arguments.	Any extra
       format specifications are evaluated with zero or the null string.

       Character escape sequences are in backslash notation as defined in the draft proposed ANSI
       C Standard X3J11.  The characters and their meanings are as follows:

	    \a	      Write a <bell> character.

	    \b	      Write a <backspace> character.

	    \f	      Write a <form-feed> character.

	    \n	      Write a <new-line> character.

	    \r	      Write a <carriage return> character.

	    \t	      Write a <tab> character.

	    \v	      Write a <vertical tab> character.

	    \'	      Write a <single quote> character.

	    \\	      Write a backslash character.

	    \num      Write  an 8-bit character whose ASCII value is the 1-, 2-, or 3-digit octal num-
		      ber num.

       Each format specification is introduced by the percent character (``%'').   The	remainder
       of the format specification includes, in the following order:

       "Zero or more of the following flags:"

	    #	      A  `#'  character  specifying that the value should be printed in an ``alternate
		      form''.  For c, d, and s, formats, this option has no effect.  For the o formats
		      the  precision  of  the  number is increased to force the first character of the
		      output string to a zero.	For the x (X) format, a non-zero result has the string
		      0x (0X) prepended to it.	For e, E, f, g, and G, formats, the result will always
		      contain a decimal point, even if no digits follow the point (normally, a decimal
		      point  only appears in the results of those formats if a digit follows the deci-
		      mal point).  For g and G formats, trailing zeros are not removed from the result
		      as they would otherwise be;

	    -	      A  minus sign `-' which specifies left adjustment of the output in the indicated
		      field;

	    +	      A `+' character specifying that there should always be a sign placed before  the
		      number when using signed formats.

	    ` '       A  space	specifying  that a blank should be left before a positive number for a
		      signed format.  A `+' overrides a space if both are used;

	    0	      A zero `0' character indicating that zero-padding should	be  used  rather  than
		 blank-padding.  A `-' overrides a `0' if both are used;

       Field Width:
		 An  optional  digit  string  specifying  a field width; if the output string has
		 fewer characters than the field width it will be blank-padded on  the	left  (or
		 right,  if  the  left-adjustment  indicator has been given) to make up the field
		 width (note that a leading zero is a flag, but an embedded zero  is  part  of	a
		 field width);

       Precision:
		 An  optional  period, ., followed by an optional digit string giving a precision
		 which specifies the number of digits to appear after the decimal  point,  for	e
		 and  f formats, or the maximum number of characters to be printed from a string;
		 if the digit string is missing, the precision is treated as zero;

       Format:
		 A character which indicates the type of format to use (one of diouxXfwEgGcs).

       A field width or precision may be * instead of a digit string.  In this case  an  argument
       supplies the field width or precision.

       The format characters and their meanings are:

       diouXx	 The argument is printed as a signed decimal (d or i), unsigned decimal, unsigned
		 octal, or unsigned hexadecimal (X or x), respectively.

       f	 The argument is printed in the style `[-]ddd.ddd' where the number of d's  after
		 the  decimal point is equal to the precision specification for the argument.  If
		 the precision is missing, 6 digits are given; if the precision is explicitly  0,
		 no digits and no decimal point are printed.

       eE	 The argument is printed in the style e where there is one digit before the deci-
		 mal point and the number after is equal to the precision specification  for  the
		 argument; when the precision is missing, 6 digits are produced.  An upper-case E
		 is used for an `E' format.

       gG	 The argument is printed in style f or in style e (E) whichever gives full preci-
		 sion in minimum space.

       c	 The first character of argument is printed.

       s	 Characters  from  the	string	argument  are printed until the end is reached or
		 until the number of characters  indicated  by	the  precision	specification  is
		 reached;  however if the precision is 0 or missing, all characters in the string
		 are printed.

       %	 Print a `%'; no argument is used.

       In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a  field;  padding
       takes place only if the specified field width exceeds the actual width.

RETURN VALUES
       Printf exits 0 on success, 1 on failure.

SEE ALSO
       printf(3)

HISTORY
       The  printf  command appeared in 4.3-Reno.  It is modeled after the standard library func-
       tion, printf(3).

BUGS
       Since the floating point numbers are translated from ASCII to floating-point and then back
       again, floating-point precision may be lost.

       ANSI hexadecimal character constants were deliberately not provided.

4th Berkeley Distribution		   May 2, 1995					PRINTF(1)
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