od - octal, decimal, hex, ascii dump
od [ -format ] [ file ] [ [+]offset[.][b] [label] ]
Od displays file, or it's standard input, in one or more dump formats as selected by the
first argument. If the first argument is missing, -o is the default. Dumping continues
The meanings of the format argument characters are:
a Interpret bytes as characters and display them with their ACSII names. If the p
character is given also, then bytes with even parity are underlined. The P character
causes bytes with odd parity to be underlined. Otherwise the parity bit is ignored.
b Interpret bytes as unsigned octal.
c Interpret bytes as ASCII characters. Certain non-graphic characters appear as C
escapes: null=\0, backspace=\b, formfeed=\f, newline=\n, return=\r, tab=\t; others
appear as 3-digit octal numbers. Bytes with the parity bit set are displayed in
d Interpret (short) words as unsigned decimal.
f Interpret long words as floating point.
h Interpret (short) words as unsigned hexadecimal.
i Interpret (short) words as signed decimal.
l Interpret long words as signed decimal.
o Interpret (short) words as unsigned octal.
s[n] Look for strings of ascii graphic characters, terminated with a null byte. N speci-
fies the minimum length string to be recognized. By default, the minimum length is 3
v Show all data. By default, display lines that are identical to the last line shown
are not output, but are indicated with an ``*'' in column 1.
w[n] Specifies the number of input bytes to be interpreted and displayed on each output
line. If w is not specified, 16 bytes are read for each display line. If n is not
specified, it defaults to 32.
x Interpret (short) words as hexadecimal.
An upper case format character implies the long or double precision form of the object.
The offset argument specifies the byte offset into the file where dumping is to commence.
By default this argument is interpreted in octal. A different radix can be specified; If
``.'' is appended to the argument, then offset is interpreted in decimal. If offset
begins with ``x'' or ``0x'', it is interpreted in hexadecimal. If ``b'' (``B'') is
appended, the offset is interpreted as a block count, where a block is 512 (1024) bytes.
If the file argument is omitted, an offset argument must be preceded by ``+''.
The radix of the displayed address will be the same as the radix of the offset, if speci-
fied; otherwise it will be octal.
Label will be interpreted as a pseudo-address for the first byte displayed. It will be
shown in ``()'' following the file offset. It is intended to be used with core images to
indicate the real memory address. The syntax for label is identical to that for offset.
A file name argument can't start with ``+''. A hexadecimal offset can't be a block count.
Only one file name argument can be given.
It is an historical botch to require specification of object, radix, and sign representa-
tion in a single character argument.
4th Berkeley Distribution April 29, 1985 OD(1)