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od(1) [bsd man page]

OD(1)							      General Commands Manual							     OD(1)

NAME
od - octal, decimal, hex, ascii dump SYNOPSIS
od [ -format ] [ file ] [ [+]offset[.][b] [label] ] DESCRIPTION
Od displays file, or it's standard input, in one or more dump formats as selected by the first argument. If the first argument is missing, -o is the default. Dumping continues until end-of-file. The meanings of the format argument characters are: a Interpret bytes as characters and display them with their ACSII names. If the p character is given also, then bytes with even parity are underlined. The P character causes bytes with odd parity to be underlined. Otherwise the parity bit is ignored. b Interpret bytes as unsigned octal. c Interpret bytes as ASCII characters. Certain non-graphic characters appear as C escapes: null=, backspace=, formfeed=f, new- line= , return= , tab= ; others appear as 3-digit octal numbers. Bytes with the parity bit set are displayed in octal. d Interpret (short) words as unsigned decimal. f Interpret long words as floating point. h Interpret (short) words as unsigned hexadecimal. i Interpret (short) words as signed decimal. l Interpret long words as signed decimal. o Interpret (short) words as unsigned octal. s[n] Look for strings of ascii graphic characters, terminated with a null byte. N specifies the minimum length string to be recognized. By default, the minimum length is 3 characters. v Show all data. By default, display lines that are identical to the last line shown are not output, but are indicated with an ``*'' in column 1. w[n] Specifies the number of input bytes to be interpreted and displayed on each output line. If w is not specified, 16 bytes are read for each display line. If n is not specified, it defaults to 32. x Interpret (short) words as hexadecimal. An upper case format character implies the long or double precision form of the object. The offset argument specifies the byte offset into the file where dumping is to commence. By default this argument is interpreted in octal. A different radix can be specified; If ``.'' is appended to the argument, then offset is interpreted in decimal. If offset begins with ``x'' or ``0x'', it is interpreted in hexadecimal. If ``b'' (``B'') is appended, the offset is interpreted as a block count, where a block is 512 (1024) bytes. If the file argument is omitted, an offset argument must be preceded by ``+''. The radix of the displayed address will be the same as the radix of the offset, if specified; otherwise it will be octal. Label will be interpreted as a pseudo-address for the first byte displayed. It will be shown in ``()'' following the file offset. It is intended to be used with core images to indicate the real memory address. The syntax for label is identical to that for offset. SEE ALSO
adb(1) BUGS
A file name argument can't start with ``+''. A hexadecimal offset can't be a block count. Only one file name argument can be given. It is an historical botch to require specification of object, radix, and sign representation in a single character argument. 4th Berkeley Distribution April 29, 1985 OD(1)

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OD(1)							    BSD General Commands Manual 						     OD(1)

NAME
od -- octal, decimal, hex, ascii dump SYNOPSIS
od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-A base] [-j skip] [-N length] [-t type_string] [[+]offset[.][Bb]] file ... DESCRIPTION
The options are as follows: -A base Specify the input address base. base may be one of 'd', 'o', 'x' or 'n', which specify decimal, octal, hexadecimal addresses or no address, respectively. -a One-byte character display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, space-filled, characters of input data per line. Control characters are printed as their names instead of as C-style escapes. -B Same as -o. -b One-byte octal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, zero-filled, bytes of input data, in octal, per line. This is the default output style if no other is selected. -c One-byte character display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, space-filled, characters of input data per line. Control characters are printed at C-style escapes, or as three octal digits, if no C escape exists for the character. -d Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by eight space-separated, five column, zero-filled, two- byte units of input data, in unsigned decimal, per line. -e Eight-byte floating point display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by two space-separated, twenty-one column, space filled, eight byte units of input data, in floating point, per line. -F Same as -e. -f Four-byte floating point display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by four space-separated, 14 column, space filled, four byte units of input data, in floating point, per line. -H Four-byte hex display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by four space-separated, eight column, zero filled, four byte units of input data, in hex, per line. -h Two-byte hex display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by eight space-separated, four column, zero filled, two byte units of input data, in hex, per line. -I Four-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by four space-separated, eleven column, space filled, four byte units of input data, in decimal, per line. -i Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by eight space-separated, six column, space filled, two- byte units of input data, in decimal, per line. -j offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. By default, offset is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number, otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an octal number. Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively. -L Same as -I. -l Same as -I. -N length Interpret only length bytes of input. -O Four-byte octal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by four space-separated, eleven column, zero-filled, four- byte units of input data, in octal, per line. -o Two-byte octal display. Display the input offset in octal, followed by eight space-separated, six column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data, in octal, per line. -t type_string Specify one or more output types. The type_string option-argument must be a string specifying the types to be used when writing the input data. The string must consist of the type specification characters: a selects US-ASCII output, with control characters replaced with their names instead of as C escape sequences. See also the _u conversion provided by hexdump(1). c selects a standard character based conversion. See also the _c conversion provided by hexdump(1). f selects the floating point output format. This type character can be optionally followed by the characters 4 or F to specify four byte floating point output, or 8 or L to specify eight byte floating point output. The default output format is eight byte floats. See also the e conversion provided by hexdump(1). d, o, u, or x select decimal, octal, unsigned decimal, or hex output respectively. These types can optionally be followed by C to specify char-sized output, S to specify short-sized output, I to specify int-sized output, L to specify long-sized output, 1 to specify one-byte output, 2 to specify two-byte output, 4 to specify four-byte output, or 8 to specify eight-byte output. The default output format is in four-byte quantities. See also the d, o, u, and x conversions provided by hexdump(1). -v The -v option causes od to display all input data. Without the -v option, any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. -X Same as -H. -x Same as -h. For each input file, od sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming the data according to the options given. If no options are specified, the default display is equivalent to specifying the -o option. od exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. SEE ALSO
hexdump(1), strings(1) HISTORY
A od command appears in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. This man page was written in February 2001 by Andrew Brown, shortly after he augmented the deprecated od syntax to include things he felt had been missing for a long time. BSD
February 9, 2010 BSD

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