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INDENT(1)										INDENT(1)

       indent - indent and format C program source

       indent	[ input-file [ output-file ] ] [ -bad | -nbad ] [ -bap | -nbap ] [ -bbb | -nbbb ]
	      [ -bc | -nbc ]  [ -bl | -br ]  [ -cn ]  [ -cdn ]	[ -cdb | -ncdb ]   [ -ce | -nce ]
	      [ -cin ]	[ -clin ] [ -dn ] [ -din ] [ -dj | -ndj ] [ -ei | -nei ] [ -fc1 | -nfc1 ]
	      [ -in ] [ -ip | -nip ] [ -ln ] [ -lcn ] [ -lp | -nlp ]  [ -npro ]  [ -pcs | -npcs ]
	      [ -ps | -nps ]  [ -psl | -npsl ] [ -sc | -nsc ] [ -sob | -nsob ] [ -st ] [ -troff ]
	      [ -v | -nv ]

       Indent is a C program formatter.  It reformats the C program in the  input-file	according
       to the switches.  The switches which can be specified are described below. They may appear
       before or after the file names.

       NOTE: If you only specify an input-file, the formatting is done `in-place', that  is,  the
       formatted  file is written back into input-file and a backup copy of input-file is written
       in the current directory.  If input-file is named `/blah/blah/file', the  backup  file  is
       named file.BAK.

       If output-file is specified, indent checks to make sure it is different from input-file.

       The options listed below control the formatting style imposed by indent.

       -bad,-nbad     If  -bad is specified, a blank line is forced after every block of declara-
		      tions.  Default: -nbad.

       -bap,-nbap     If -bap is specified, a blank line is forced after  every  procedure  body.
		      Default: -nbap.

       -bbb,-nbbb     If  -bbb	is  specified, a blank line is forced before every block comment.
		      Default: -nbbb.

       -bc,-nbc       If -bc is specified, then a newline is forced after each comma in a  decla-
		      ration.  -nbc turns off this option.  The default is -nbc.

       -br,-bl	      Specifying -bl lines up compound statements like this:
			  if (...)
		      Specifying -br (the default) makes them look like this:
			  if (...) {

       -cn	      The column in which comments on code start.  The default is 33.

       -cdn	      The  column  in  which  comments on declarations start.  The default is for
		      these comments to start in the same column as those on code.

       -cdb,-ncdb     Enables (disables) the placement of  comment  delimiters	on  blank  lines.
		      With this option enabled, comments look like this:
			    * this is a comment
		      Rather than like this:
			   /* this is a comment */
		      This  only  affects  block comments, not comments to the right of code. The
		      default is -cdb.

       -ce,-nce       Enables (disables) forcing `else's to cuddle up to the immediately  preced-
		      ing `}'.	The default is -ce.

       -cin	      Sets  the continuation indent to be n.  Continuation lines will be indented
		      that far from the beginning of the first line of the statement.	Parenthe-
		      sized  expressions  have	extra  indentation added to indicate the nesting,
		      unless -lp is in effect.	-ci defaults to the same value as -i.

       -clin	      Causes case labels to be indented n tab stops to the right of the  contain-
		      ing switch statement.  -cli0.5 causes case labels to be indented half a tab
		      stop.  The default is -cli0.  (This is the only option that takes  a  frac-
		      tional argument.)

       -dn	      Controls	the  placement	of  comments  which are not to the right of code.
		      Specifying -d1 means that such comments are placed one indentation level to
		      the  left  of code.  The default -d0 lines up these comments with the code.
		      See the section on comment indentation below.

       -din	      Specifies the indentation, in character positions, from a declaration  key-
		      word to the following identifier.  The default is -di16.

       -dj,-ndj       -dj  left  justifies  declarations.   -ndj indents declarations the same as
		      code.  The default is -ndj.

       -ei,-nei       Enables (disables) special else-if processing.  If enabled,  ifs	following
		      elses  will  have  the same indentation as the preceding if statement.  The
		      default is -ei.

       -fc1,-nfc1     Enables (disables) the formatting of  comments  that  start  in  column  1.
		      Often,  comments	whose leading `/' is in column 1 have been carefully hand
		      formatted by the programmer.  In such cases, -nfc1  should  be  used.   The
		      default is -fc1.

       -in	      The number of spaces for one indentation level.  The default is 8.

       -ip,-nip       Enables  (disables) the indentation of parameter declarations from the left
		      margin.  The default is -ip.

       -ln	      Maximum length of an output line.  The default is 78.

       -lp,-nlp       Lines up code surrounded by parenthesis in continuation lines.  If  a  line
		      has  a left paren which is not closed on that line, then continuation lines
		      will be lined up to start at the character position  just  after	the  left
		      paren.   For example, here is how a piece of continued code looks with -nlp
		      in effect:
			  p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
			      third_procedure(p4, p5));
		      With -lp in effect (the default) the code looks somewhat clearer:
			  p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
					       third_procedure(p4, p5));
		      Inserting two more newlines we get:
			  p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2,

       -npro	      Causes the  profile  files,  `./.indent.pro'  and  `~/.indent.pro',  to  be

       -pcs,-npcs     If  true	(-pcs) all procedure calls will have a space inserted between the
		      name and the `('.  The default is -npcs.

       -ps,-nps       If true (-ps) the pointer following operator `->'  will  be  surrounded  by
		      spaces on either side.  The default is -nps.

       -psl,-npsl     If true (-psl) the names of procedures being defined are placed in column 1
		      - their types, if any, will be left on the previous lines.  The default  is

       -sc,-nsc       Enables  (disables)  the	placement of asterisks (`*'s) at the left edge of
		      all comments.  The default is -sc.

       -sob,-nsob     If -sob is specified, indent will swallow optional blank	lines.	 You  can
		      use this to get rid of blank lines after declarations.  Default: -nsob.

       -st	      Causes indent to take its input from stdin, and put its output to stdout.

       -Ttypename     Adds  typename  to  the list of type keywords.  Names accumulate: -T can be
		      specified more than once.  You need  to  specify	all  the  typenames  that
		      appear  in  your	program  that  are  defined by typedefs - nothing will be
		      harmed if you miss a few, but the program won't be formatted as  nicely  as
		      it should.  This sounds like a painful thing to have to do, but it's really
		      a symptom of a problem in C: typedef causes a syntactic change in the  lan-
		      guage and indent can't find all typedefs.

       -troff	      Causes  indent to format the program for processing by troff.  It will pro-
		      duce a fancy listing in much the same spirit as vgrind.  If the output file
		      is not specified, the default is standard output, rather than formatting in

       -v,-nv	      -v turns on `verbose' mode; -nv turns it off.  When in verbose mode, indent
		      reports  when it splits one line of input into two or more lines of output,
		      and gives some size statistics at completion. The default is -nv.

       You may set up your own `profile'  of  defaults	to  indent  by	creating  a  file  called
       .indent.pro  in	either	your  login  directory and/or the current directory and including
       whatever switches you like.  Switches in `.indent.pro' in the current  directory  override
       those in your login directory (with the exception of -T type definitions, which just accu-
       mulate).  If indent is run and a profile file exists, then it is read to set up	the  pro-
       gram's  defaults.  The switches should be separated by spaces, tabs or newlines.  Switches
       on the command line, however, override profile switches.


       `Box' comments.	Indent assumes that any comment with a dash or star immediately after the
       start  of  comment  (that  is,  `/*-' or `/**') is a comment surrounded by a box of stars.
       Each line of such a comment is left unchanged, except that its indentation may be adjusted
       to account for the change in indentation of the first line of the comment.

       Straight  text.	 All  other  comments  are treated as straight text.  Indent fits as many
       words (separated by blanks, tabs, or newlines) on a line as possible.  Blank  lines  break

       Comment indentation

       If a comment is on a line with code it is started in the `comment column', which is set by
       the -cn command line parameter.	Otherwise, the comment is started at n indentation levels
       less  than  where  code is currently being placed, where n is specified by the -dn command
       line parameter.	If the code on a line extends past the comment column, the comment starts
       further to the right, and the right margin may be automatically extended in extreme cases.

       Preprocessor lines

       In general, indent leaves preprocessor lines alone.  The only reformatting that it will do
       is to straighten up trailing comments.  It leaves embedded  comments  alone.   Conditional
       compilation  (#ifdef...#endif)  is  recognized and indent attempts to correctly compensate
       for the syntactic peculiarities introduced.

       C syntax

       Indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but it  has  a  `forgiving'
       parser.	 It attempts to cope with the usual sorts of incomplete and misformed syntax.  In
       particular, the use of macros like:
	       #define forever for(;;)
       is handled properly.

       ./.indent.pro  profile file
       ~/.indent.pro  profile file

       Indent has even more switches than ls.

       A common mistake that often causes grief is typing:
	   indent *.c
       to the shell in an attempt to indent all the C programs in a directory.	This is  probably
       a bug, not a feature.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution		September 10, 1985				INDENT(1)
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