ci - check in RCS revisions
ci [ options ] file ...
Ci stores new revisions into RCS files. Each file name ending in `,v' is taken to be an
RCS file, all others are assumed to be working files containing new revisions. Ci
deposits the contents of each working file into the corresponding RCS file.
Pairs of RCS files and working files may be specified in 3 ways (see also the example sec-
tion of co (1)).
1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given. The RCS file name is of the form
path1/workfile,v and the working file name is of the form path2/workfile, where path1/ and
path2/ are (possibly different or empty) paths and workfile is a file name.
2) Only the RCS file is given. Then the working file is assumed to be in the current
directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file by removing path1/ and the
3) Only the working file is given. Then the name of the RCS file is derived from the name
of the working file by removing path2/ and appending the suffix `,v'.
If the RCS file is omitted or specified without a path, then ci looks for the RCS file
first in the directory ./RCS and then in the current directory.
For ci to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the access list
is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner of the file. To append a new revi-
sion to an existing branch, the tip revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.
Otherwise, only a new branch can be created. This restriction is not enforced for the
owner of the file, unless locking is set to strict (see rcs (1)). A lock held by someone
else may be broken with the rcs command.
Normally, ci checks whether the revision to be deposited is different from the preceding
one. If it is not different, ci either aborts the deposit (if -q is given) or asks whether
to abort (if -q is omitted). A deposit can be forced with the -f option.
For each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message. The log message should summa-
rize the change and must be terminated with a line containing a single `.' or a control-D.
If several files are checked in, ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message. If
the std. input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log message
for all files. See also -m.
The number of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -r, -f, -k, -l,
-u, or -q (see -r).
If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents of the working
file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1). The access list is initialized to
empty. Instead of the log message, ci requests descriptive text (see -t below).
-r[rev] assigns the revision number rev to the checked-in revision, releases the corre-
sponding lock, and deletes the working file. This is also the default.
If rev is omitted, ci derives the new revision number from the caller's last
lock. If the caller has locked the tip revision of a branch, the new revision is
appended to that branch. The new revision number is obtained by incrementing the
tip revision number. If the caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is
started at that revision by incrementing the highest branch number at that revi-
sion. The default initial branch and level numbers are 1. If the caller holds
no lock, but he is the owner of the file and locking is not set to strict, then
the revision is appended to the trunk.
If rev indicates a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on the
branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.
If rev indicates a branch instead of a revision, the new revision is appended to
that branch. The level number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision num-
ber of that branch. If rev indicates a non-existing branch, that branch is cre-
ated with the initial revision numbered rev.1.
Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not inserted.
-f[rev] forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not different from
the preceding one.
-k[rev] searches the working file for keyword values to determine its revision number,
creation date, author, and state (see co (1)), and assigns these values to the
deposited revision, rather than computing them locally. A revision number given
by a command option overrides the number in the working file. This option is
useful for software distribution. A revision that is sent to several sites
should be checked in with the -k option at these sites to preserve its original
number, date, author, and state.
-l[rev] works like -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the deposited revi-
sion. Thus, the deposited revision is immediately checked out again and locked.
This is useful for saving a revision although one wants to continue editing it
after the checkin.
-u[rev] works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked. This is useful
if one wants to process (e.g., compile) the revision immediately after checkin.
-q[rev] quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed. A revision that is not different
from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f is given.
-mmsg uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked in.
-nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in revision. Ci
prints an error message if name is already assigned to another number.
-Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of name.
-sstate sets the state of the checked-in revision to the identifier state. The default
writes descriptive text into the RCS file (deletes the existing text). If
txtfile is omitted, ci prompts the user for text supplied from the std. input,
terminated with a line containing a single `.' or control-D. Otherwise, the
descriptive text is copied from the file txtfile. During initialization,
descriptive text is requested even if -t is not given. The prompt is suppressed
if std. input is not a terminal.
For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number of both the
deposited and the preceding revision. The exit status always refers to the last file
checked in, and is 0 if the operation was successful, 1 otherwise.
An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions from the working file.
If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves its read and execute permissions. Ci always
turns off all write permissions of RCS files.
The caller of the command must have read/write permission for the directories containing
the RCS file and the working file, and read permission for the RCS file itself. A number
of temporary files are created. A semaphore file is created in the directory containing
the RCS file. Ci always creates a new RCS file and unlinks the old one. This strategy
makes links to RCS files useless.
Author: Walter F. Tichy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907.
Revision Number: 3.1 ; Release Date: 83/04/04 .
Copyright (C) 1982 by Walter F. Tichy.
co (1), ident(1), rcs (1), rcsdiff (1), rcsintro (1), rcsmerge (1), rlog (1), rcsfile (5),
Walter F. Tichy, "Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Revision Control System," in
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE, Tokyo,
Purdue University 6/29/83 CI(1)