Home Man
Today's Posts

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

man page for man (all section 1)

MAN(1)					Manual pager utils				   MAN(1)

       man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

       man  [-C  file]	[-d]  [-D]  [--warnings[=warnings]]  [-R  encoding]  [-L locale] [-m sys-
       tem[,...]] [-M path] [-S list] [-e extension] [-i|-I] [--regex|--wildcard]  [--names-only]
       [-a]  [-u]  [--no-subpages]  [-P  pager] [-r prompt] [-7] [-E encoding] [--no-hyphenation]
       [--no-justification] [-p string] [-t] [-T[device]] [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z] [[section]
       page[.section] ...] ...
       man -k [apropos options] regexp ...
       man -K [-w|-W] [-S list] [-i|-I] [--regex] [section] term ...
       man -f [whatis options] page ...
       man  -l	[-C  file] [-d] [-D] [--warnings[=warnings]] [-R encoding] [-L locale] [-P pager]
       [-r prompt] [-7] [-E encoding] [-p string] [-t] [-T[device]] [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]]  [-Z]
       file ...
       man -w|-W [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man -c [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man [-?V]

       man is the system's manual pager.  Each page argument given to man is normally the name of
       a program, utility or function.	The manual page associated with each of  these	arguments
       is then found and displayed.  A section, if provided, will direct man to look only in that
       section of the manual.  The default action is to search in all of the  available  sections
       following  a  pre-defined  order ("1 n l 8 3 2 3posix 3pm 3perl 3am 5 4 9 6 7" by default,
       unless overridden by the SECTION directive in /etc/manpath.config), and to show	only  the
       first page found, even if page exists in several sections.

       The  table  below  shows  the section numbers of the manual followed by the types of pages
       they contain.

       1   Executable programs or shell commands
       2   System calls (functions provided by the kernel)
       3   Library calls (functions within program libraries)
       4   Special files (usually found in /dev)
       5   File formats and conventions eg /etc/passwd
       6   Games
       7   Miscellaneous (including macro packages and conventions), e.g. man(7), groff(7)
       8   System administration commands (usually only for root)
       9   Kernel routines [Non standard]

       A manual page consists of several sections.

       Conventional section names include NAME, SYNOPSIS,  CONFIGURATION,  DESCRIPTION,  OPTIONS,

       The following conventions apply to the SYNOPSIS section and can be  used  as  a	guide  in
       other sections.

       bold text	  type exactly as shown.
       italic text	  replace with appropriate argument.
       [-abc]		  any or all arguments within [ ] are optional.
       -a|-b		  options delimited by | cannot be used together.
       argument ...	  argument is repeatable.
       [expression] ...   entire expression within [ ] is repeatable.

       Exact  rendering  may vary depending on the output device.  For instance, man will usually
       not be able to render italics when running in a terminal, and will  typically  use  under-
       lined or coloured text instead.

       The  command  or function illustration is a pattern that should match all possible invoca-
       tions.  In some cases it is advisable to illustrate several exclusive  invocations  as  is
       shown in the SYNOPSIS section of this manual page.

       man ls
	   Display the manual page for the item (program) ls.

       man man.7
	   Display the manual page for macro package man from section 7.

       man -a intro
	   Display,  in  succession, all of the available intro manual pages contained within the
	   manual.  It is possible to quit between successive displays or skip any of them.

       man -t alias | lpr -Pps
	   Format the manual page referenced by `alias', usually a shell manual  page,	into  the
	   default troff or groff format and pipe it to the printer named ps.  The default output
	   for groff is usually PostScript.  man --help should advise as to  which  processor  is
	   bound to the -t option.

       man -l -Tdvi ./foo.1x.gz > ./foo.1x.dvi
	   This  command will decompress and format the nroff source manual page ./foo.1x.gz into
	   a device independent (dvi) file.  The redirection is necessary as the -T  flag  causes
	   output to be directed to stdout with no pager.  The output could be viewed with a pro-
	   gram such as xdvi or further processed into PostScript using a program such as dvips.

       man -k printf
	   Search the short descriptions and manual page names for the keyword printf as  regular
	   expression.	Print out any matches.	Equivalent to apropos printf.

       man -f smail
	   Lookup  the	manual	pages referenced by smail and print out the short descriptions of
	   any found.  Equivalent to whatis smail.

       Many options are available to man in order to give as much flexibility as possible to  the
       user.   Changes can be made to the search path, section order, output processor, and other
       behaviours and operations detailed below.

       If set, various environment variables are interrogated to determine the operation of  man.
       It  is possible to set the `catch all' variable $MANOPT to any string in command line for-
       mat with the exception that any spaces used as  part  of  an  option's  argument  must  be
       escaped	(preceded  by a backslash).  man will parse $MANOPT prior to parsing its own com-
       mand line.  Those options requiring an argument will be overridden  by  the  same  options
       found  on  the command line.  To reset all of the options set in $MANOPT, -D can be speci-
       fied as the initial command line option.  This  will  allow  man  to  `forget'  about  the
       options specified in $MANOPT although they must still have been valid.

       The manual pager utilities packaged as man-db make extensive use of index database caches.
       These caches contain information such as where each  manual  page  can  be  found  on  the
       filesystem  and what its whatis (short one line description of the man page) contains, and
       allow man to run faster than if it had to search the filesystem	each  time  to	find  the
       appropriate  manual  page.   If	requested  using  the -u option, man will ensure that the
       caches remain consistent, which can obviate the need to manually run  software  to  update
       traditional whatis text databases.

       If  man	cannot find a mandb initiated index database for a particular manual page hierar-
       chy, it will still search for the requested manual pages, although file globbing  will  be
       necessary to search within that hierarchy.  If whatis or apropos fails to find an index it
       will try to extract information from a traditional whatis database instead.

       These utilities support compressed source nroff files having, by default,  the  extensions
       of .Z, .z and .gz.  It is possible to deal with any compression extension, but this infor-
       mation must be known at compile time.  Also, by default, any cat pages produced	are  com-
       pressed	using  gzip.   Each  `global'  manual  page  hierarchy	such as /usr/share/man or
       /usr/X11R6/man may have any directory as its cat page hierarchy.   Traditionally  the  cat
       pages  are stored under the same hierarchy as the man pages, but for reasons such as those
       specified in the File Hierarchy Standard (FHS), it may be better to store them  elsewhere.
       For  details  on  how  to do this, please read manpath(5).  For details on why to do this,
       read the standard.

       International support is available with this package.  Native language  manual  pages  are
       accessible  (if	available  on your system) via use of locale functions.  To activate such
       support, it is necessary to set either $LC_MESSAGES, $LANG  or  another	system	dependent
       environment  variable to your language locale, usually specified in the POSIX 1003.1 based


       If the desired page is available in your locale, it will be displayed in lieu of the stan-
       dard (usually American English) page.

       Support	for  international message catalogues is also featured in this package and can be
       activated in the same way, again if available.  If you find that the manual pages and mes-
       sage  catalogues  supplied with this package are not available in your native language and
       you would like to supply them, please contact the maintainer who will be coordinating such

       For  information regarding other features and extensions available with this manual pager,
       please read the documents supplied with the package.

       man will search for the desired manual pages within the index database caches. If  the  -u
       option is given, a cache consistency check is performed to ensure the databases accurately
       reflect the filesystem.	If this option is always given, it is not generally necessary  to
       run  mandb  after  the caches are initially created, unless a cache becomes corrupt.  How-
       ever, the cache consistency check can be slow on systems with many manual pages installed,
       so  it  is not performed by default, and system administrators may wish to run mandb every
       week or so to keep the database caches fresh.  To forestall problems  caused  by  outdated
       caches,	man  will fall back to file globbing if a cache lookup fails, just as it would if
       no cache was present.

       Once a manual page has been located, a check is performed to find out if a  relative  pre-
       formatted  `cat' file already exists and is newer than the nroff file.  If it does and is,
       this preformatted file is (usually) decompressed and then displayed, via use of	a  pager.
       The  pager  can	be  specified in a number of ways, or else will fall back to a default is
       used (see option -P for details).  If no cat is found or is older than the nroff file, the
       nroff is filtered through various programs and is shown immediately.

       If a cat file can be produced (a relative cat directory exists and has appropriate permis-
       sions), man will compress and store the cat file in the background.

       The filters are deciphered by a number of means.  Firstly, the command line option  -p  or
       the environment variable $MANROFFSEQ is interrogated.  If -p was not used and the environ-
       ment variable was not set, the initial line of the nroff file is parsed for a preprocessor
       string.	To contain a valid preprocessor string, the first line must resemble

       '\" <string>

       where string can be any combination of letters described by option -p below.

       If none of the above methods provide any filter information, a default set is used.

       A  formatting  pipeline	is  formed  from  the filters and the primary formatter (nroff or
       [tg]roff with -t) and executed.	Alternatively, if an executable  program  mandb_nfmt  (or
       mandb_tfmt  with  -t) exists in the man tree root, it is executed instead.  It gets passed
       the manual source file, the preprocessor string, and optionally the device specified  with
       -T or -E as arguments.

       Non  argument options that are duplicated either on the command line, in $MANOPT, or both,
       are not harmful.  For options that require an argument, each duplication will override the
       previous argument value.

   General options
       -C file, --config-file=file
	      Use this user configuration file rather than the default of ~/.manpath.

       -d, --debug
	      Print debugging information.

       -D, --default
	      This  option is normally issued as the very first option and resets man's behaviour
	      to its default.  Its use is to reset those  options  that  may  have  been  set  in
	      $MANOPT.	Any options that follow -D will have their usual effect.

	      Enable  warnings	from  groff.   This  may  be used to perform sanity checks on the
	      source text of manual pages.  warnings is a comma-separated list of warning  names;
	      if it is not supplied, the default is "mac".  See the "Warnings" node in info groff
	      for a list of available warning names.

   Main modes of operation
       -f, --whatis
	      Equivalent to whatis.  Display a short description from the manual page, if  avail-
	      able.  See whatis(1) for details.

       -k, --apropos
	      Equivalent  to apropos.  Search the short manual page descriptions for keywords and
	      display any matches.  See apropos(1) for details.

       -K, --global-apropos
	      Search for text in all manual pages.  This is a brute-force search, and  is  likely
	      to take some time; if you can, you should specify a section to reduce the number of
	      pages that need to be searched.  Search terms may be simple strings (the	default),
	      or regular expressions if the --regex option is used.

	      Note that this searches the sources of the manual pages, not the rendered text, and
	      so may include false positives  due  to  things  like  comments  in  source  files.
	      Searching the rendered text would be much slower.

       -l, --local-file
	      Activate	`local' mode.  Format and display local manual files instead of searching
	      through the system's manual collection.  Each manual page argument will  be  inter-
	      preted as an nroff source file in the correct format.  No cat file is produced.  If
	      '-' is listed as one of the arguments, input will be taken from stdin.   When  this
	      option  is not used, and man fails to find the page required, before displaying the
	      error message, it attempts to act as if this option was supplied, using the name as
	      a filename and looking for an exact match.

       -w, --where, --path, --location
	      Don't actually display the manual pages, but do print the location(s) of the source
	      nroff files that would be formatted.

       -W, --where-cat, --location-cat
	      Don't actually display the manual pages, but do print the location(s)  of  the  cat
	      files  that  would be displayed.	If -w and -W are both specified, print both sepa-
	      rated by a space.

       -c, --catman
	      This option is not for general use and should only be used by the catman program.

       -R encoding, --recode=encoding
	      Instead of formatting the manual page in the usual way, output its source converted
	      to  the  specified  encoding.  If you already know the encoding of the source file,
	      you can also use manconv(1) directly.  However, this option allows you  to  convert
	      several  manual  pages  to a single encoding without having to explicitly state the
	      encoding of each, provided that they were already installed in a structure  similar
	      to a manual page hierarchy.

   Finding manual pages
       -L locale, --locale=locale
	      man  will normally determine your current locale by a call to the C function setlo-
	      cale(3)  which  interrogates  various  environment  variables,  possibly	including
	      $LC_MESSAGES  and  $LANG.   To  temporarily override the determined value, use this
	      option to supply a locale string directly to man.   Note	that  it  will	not  take
	      effect until the search for pages actually begins.  Output such as the help message
	      will always be displayed in the initially determined locale.

       -m system[,...], --systems=system[,...]
	      If this system has access to other operating system's manual  pages,  they  can  be
	      accessed	using  this option.  To search for a manual page from NewOS's manual page
	      collection, use the option -m NewOS.

	      The system specified can be a  combination  of  comma  delimited	operating  system
	      names.   To include a search of the native operating system's manual pages, include
	      the system name man in the argument string.  This option will override the  $SYSTEM
	      environment variable.

       -M path, --manpath=path
	      Specify  an alternate manpath to use.  By default, man uses manpath derived code to
	      determine the path to search.  This option overrides the $MANPATH environment vari-
	      able and causes option -m to be ignored.

	      A  path  specified  as a manpath must be the root of a manual page hierarchy struc-
	      tured into sections as described in the man-db manual (under "The manual page  sys-
	      tem").  To view manual pages outside such hierarchies, see the -l option.

       -S list, -s list, --sections=list
	      List  is	a  colon-  or comma-separated list of `order specific' manual sections to
	      search.  This option overrides the $MANSECT environment variable.  (The -s spelling
	      is for compatibility with System V.)

       -e sub-extension, --extension=sub-extension
	      Some  systems incorporate large packages of manual pages, such as those that accom-
	      pany the Tcl package, into the main manual page hierarchy.  To get around the prob-
	      lem  of  having  two manual pages with the same name such as exit(3), the Tcl pages
	      were usually all assigned to section l.  As this is unfortunate, it is now possible
	      to  put  the  pages in the correct section, and to assign a specific `extension' to
	      them, in this case, exit(3tcl).  Under normal operation, man will  display  exit(3)
	      in  preference  to  exit(3tcl).  To negotiate this situation and to avoid having to
	      know which section the page you require resides in, it is now possible to give  man
	      a sub-extension string indicating which package the page must belong to.	Using the
	      above example, supplying the option -e tcl to man will restrict the search to pages
	      having an extension of *tcl.

       -i, --ignore-case
	      Ignore case when searching for manual pages.  This is the default.

       -I, --match-case
	      Search for manual pages case-sensitively.

	      Show  all  pages with any part of either their names or their descriptions matching
	      each page argument as a regular expression, as with  apropos(1).	 Since	there  is
	      usually  no  reasonable  way  to	pick  a  "best" page when searching for a regular
	      expression, this option implies -a.

	      Show all pages with any part of either their names or their  descriptions  matching
	      each page argument using shell-style wildcards, as with apropos(1) --wildcard.  The
	      page argument must match the entire name or description, or match  on  word  bound-
	      aries  in  the  description.   Since  there  is usually no reasonable way to pick a
	      "best" page when searching for a wildcard, this option implies -a.

	      If the --regex or --wildcard option is  used,  match  only  page	names,	not  page
	      descriptions, as with whatis(1).	Otherwise, no effect.

       -a, --all
	      By  default, man will exit after displaying the most suitable manual page it finds.
	      Using this option forces man to display all the manual pages with names that  match
	      the search criteria.

       -u, --update
	      This  option  causes man to perform an `inode level' consistency check on its data-
	      base caches to ensure that they are an accurate representation of  the  filesystem.
	      It will only have a useful effect if man is installed with the setuid bit set.

	      By  default, man will try to interpret pairs of manual page names given on the com-
	      mand line as equivalent to a single manual page name  containing	a  hyphen  or  an
	      underscore.   This  supports the common pattern of programs that implement a number
	      of subcommands, allowing them to provide manual pages for each that can be accessed
	      using  similar  syntax  as would be used to invoke the subcommands themselves.  For

		$ man -aw git diff

	      To disable this behaviour, use the --no-subpages option.

		$ man -aw --no-subpages git diff

   Controlling formatted output
       -P pager, --pager=pager
	      Specify which output pager to use.  By default, man uses pager, falling back to cat
	      if  pager  is  not found or is not executable.  This option overrides the $MANPAGER
	      environment variable, which in turn overrides the $PAGER environment variable.   It
	      is not used in conjunction with -f or -k.

	      The  value  may  be  a simple command name or a command with arguments, and may use
	      shell quoting (backslashes, single quotes, or double quotes).  It may not use pipes
	      to  connect  multiple  commands;	if you need that, use a wrapper script, which may
	      take the file to display either as an argument or on standard input.

       -r prompt, --prompt=prompt
	      If a recent version of less is used as the pager,  man  will  attempt  to  set  its
	      prompt and some sensible options.  The default prompt looks like

	       Manual page name(sec) line x

	      where name denotes the manual page name, sec denotes the section it was found under
	      and x the current line number.  This is achieved by  using  the  $LESS  environment

	      Supplying  -r with a string will override this default.  The string may contain the
	      text $MAN_PN which will be expanded to the name of the current manual page and  its
	      section  name  surrounded  by  `(' and `)'.  The string used to produce the default
	      could be expressed as

	      \ Manual\ page\ \$MAN_PN\ ?ltline\ %lt?L/%L.:
	      byte\ %bB?s/%s..?\ (END):?pB\ %pB\\%..
	      (press h for help or q to quit)

	      It is broken into three lines here for the sake of readability only.  For its mean-
	      ing  see	the  less(1)  manual  page.   The prompt string is first evaluated by the
	      shell.  All double quotes, back-quotes  and  backslashes	in  the  prompt  must  be
	      escaped  by a preceding backslash.  The prompt string may end in an escaped $ which
	      may be followed by further options for less.  By default man sets the -ix8 options.

	      The $MANLESS environment variable described below may be	used  to  set  a  default
	      prompt string if none is supplied on the command line.

       -7, --ascii
	      When  viewing a pure ascii(7) manual page on a 7 bit terminal or terminal emulator,
	      some characters may not display correctly when using the latin1(7) device  descrip-
	      tion with GNU nroff.  This option allows pure ascii manual pages to be displayed in
	      ascii with the latin1 device.  It will not translate any latin1 text.  The  follow-
	      ing  table shows the translations performed: some parts of it may only be displayed
	      properly when using GNU nroff's latin1(7) device.

	      Description	    Octal   latin1   ascii
	      continuation hyphen    255      -        -
	      bullet (middle dot)    267      o        o
	      acute accent	     264      '        '
	      multiplication sign    327      x        x

	      If the latin1 column displays correctly, your terminal may be  set  up  for  latin1
	      characters  and  this option is not necessary.  If the latin1 and ascii columns are
	      identical, you are reading this page using this option or man did not  format  this
	      page  using the latin1 device description.  If the latin1 column is missing or cor-
	      rupt, you may need to view manual pages with this option.

	      This option is ignored when using options -t, -H, -T, or -Z and may be useless  for
	      nroff other than GNU's.

       -E encoding, --encoding=encoding
	      Generate output for a character encoding other than the default.	For backward com-
	      patibility, encoding may be an nroff device such as ascii, latin1, or utf8 as  well
	      as a true character encoding such as UTF-8.

       --no-hyphenation, --nh
	      Normally, nroff will automatically hyphenate text at line breaks even in words that
	      do not contain hyphens, if it is necessary to do so to lay  out  words  on  a  line
	      without  excessive  spacing.   This option disables automatic hyphenation, so words
	      will only be hyphenated if they already contain hyphens.

	      If you are writing a manual page and simply want to prevent nroff from  hyphenating
	      a  word  at  an  inappropriate point, do not use this option, but consult the nroff
	      documentation instead; for instance, you can put "\%" inside  a  word  to  indicate
	      that it may be hyphenated at that point, or put "\%" at the start of a word to pre-
	      vent it from being hyphenated.

       --no-justification, --nj
	      Normally, nroff will automatically justify text to both margins.	This option  dis-
	      ables  full  justification,  leaving  justified  only to the left margin, sometimes
	      called "ragged-right" text.

	      If you are writing a manual page and simply want to prevent nroff  from  justifying
	      certain  paragraphs,  do	not  use this option, but consult the nroff documentation
	      instead; for instance, you can use the ".na", ".nf", ".fi", and ".ad"  requests  to
	      temporarily disable adjusting and filling.

       -p string, --preprocessor=string
	      Specify  the sequence of preprocessors to run before nroff or troff/groff.  Not all
	      installations will have a full set of preprocessors.  Some of the preprocessors and
	      the letters used to designate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p), tbl (t), vgrind
	      (v), refer (r).  This option overrides the $MANROFFSEQ environment variable.  zsoe-
	      lim is always run as the very first preprocessor.

       -t, --troff
	      Use groff -mandoc to format the manual page to stdout.  This option is not required
	      in conjunction with -H, -T, or -Z.

       -T[device], --troff-device[=device]
	      This option is used to change groff (or possibly troff's) output to be suitable for
	      a  device  other	than  the  default.   It  implies  -t.	 Examples  (provided with
	      Groff-1.17) include dvi, latin1, ps, utf8, X75 and X100.

       -H[browser], --html[=browser]
	      This option will cause groff to produce HTML output, and will display  that  output
	      in  a  web  browser.   The  choice of browser is determined by the optional browser
	      argument if one is provided, by the $BROWSER environment variable, or by a compile-
	      time  default  if  that  is unset (usually lynx).  This option implies -t, and will
	      only work with GNU troff.

       -X[dpi], --gxditview[=dpi]
	      This option displays the output of groff in a graphical window using the	gxditview
	      program.	 The  dpi (dots per inch) may be 75, 75-12, 100, or 100-12, defaulting to
	      75; the -12 variants use a 12-point base font.  This option  implies  -T	with  the
	      X75, X75-12, X100, or X100-12 device respectively.

       -Z, --ditroff
	      groff  will  run troff and then use an appropriate post-processor to produce output
	      suitable for the chosen device.  If groff -mandoc is groff, this option  is  passed
	      to groff and will suppress the use of a post-processor.  It implies -t.

   Getting help
       -?, --help
	      Print a help message and exit.

	      Print a short usage message and exit.

       -V, --version
	      Display version information.

       0      Successful program execution.

       1      Usage, syntax or configuration file error.

       2      Operational error.

       3      A child process returned a non-zero exit status.

       16     At least one of the pages/files/keywords didn't exist or wasn't matched.

	      If $MANPATH is set, its value is used as the path to search for manual pages.

	      The  contents  of  $MANROFFOPT are added to the command line every time man invokes
	      the formatter (nroff, troff, or groff).

	      If $MANROFFSEQ is set, its value is used to determine the set of	preprocessors  to
	      pass each manual page through.  The default preprocessor list is system dependent.

	      If  $MANSECT is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of sections and it is used
	      to determine which manual sections to search and in what order.  The default is  "1
	      n  l 8 3 2 3posix 3pm 3perl 3am 5 4 9 6 7", unless overridden by the SECTION direc-
	      tive in /etc/manpath.config.

	      If $MANPAGER or $PAGER is set ($MANPAGER is used in preference), its value is  used
	      as  the  name of the program used to display the manual page.  By default, pager is
	      used, falling back to cat if pager is not found or is not executable.

	      The value may be a simple command name or a command with	arguments,  and  may  use
	      shell quoting (backslashes, single quotes, or double quotes).  It may not use pipes
	      to connect multiple commands; if you need that, use a  wrapper  script,  which  may
	      take the file to display either as an argument or on standard input.

	      If  $MANLESS  is	set,  its value will be used as the default prompt string for the
	      less pager, as if it had been passed using the -r option (so any occurrences of the
	      text  $MAN_PN  will  be expanded in the same way).  For example, if you want to set
	      the  prompt  string  unconditionally  to	"my  prompt  string",  set  $MANLESS   to
	      '-Psmy prompt string'.  Using the -r option overrides this environment variable.

	      If  $BROWSER is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of commands, each of which
	      in turn is used to try to start a web browser for man --html.  In each command,  %s
	      is  replaced by a filename containing the HTML output from groff, %% is replaced by
	      a single percent sign (%), and %c is replaced by a colon (:).

       SYSTEM If $SYSTEM is set, it will have the same effect as if it had been specified as  the
	      argument to the -m option.

       MANOPT If $MANOPT is set, it will be parsed prior to man's command line and is expected to
	      be in a similar format.  As all of the other man specific environment variables can
	      be expressed as command line options, and are thus candidates for being included in
	      $MANOPT it is expected that they will  become  obsolete.	 N.B.	All  spaces  that
	      should be interpreted as part of an option's argument must be escaped.

	      If  $MANWIDTH  is  set, its value is used as the line length for which manual pages
	      should be formatted.  If it is not set, manual pages will be formatted with a  line
	      length  appropriate  to  the  current  terminal  (using  the  value of $COLUMNS, an
	      ioctl(2) if available, or falling back to 80 characters if neither  is  available).
	      Cat  pages will only be saved when the default formatting can be used, that is when
	      the terminal line length is between 66 and 80 characters.

	      Normally, when output is not being directed to a terminal (such as to a file  or	a
	      pipe),  formatting  characters  are  discarded to make it easier to read the result
	      without special tools.  However, if $MAN_KEEP_FORMATTING is set  to  any	non-empty
	      value,  these  formatting characters are retained.  This may be useful for wrappers
	      around man that can interpret formatting characters.

	      Normally, when output is being directed to a terminal (usually  to  a  pager),  any
	      error output from the command used to produce formatted versions of manual pages is
	      discarded to avoid interfering with the pager's display.	Programs  such	as  groff
	      often  produce relatively minor error messages about typographical problems such as
	      poor alignment, which are unsightly and generally confusing  when  displayed  along
	      with  the  manual  page.	 However,  some  users	want  to  see them anyway, so, if
	      $MAN_KEEP_STDERR is set to any non-empty value, error output will be  displayed  as

	      Depending  on  system  and implementation, either or both of $LANG and $LC_MESSAGES
	      will be interrogated for the current message locale.  man will display its messages
	      in that locale (if available).  See setlocale(3) for precise details.

	      man-db configuration file.

	      A global manual page hierarchy.

	      A traditional global index database cache.

	      An FHS compliant global index database cache.

       apropos(1), groff(1), less(1), manpath(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1), zsoelim(1), set-
       locale(3), manpath(5), ascii(7), latin1(7), man(7), catman(8), mandb(8), the man-db  pack-
       age manual, FSSTND

       1990, 1991 - Originally written by John W. Eaton (jwe@che.utexas.edu).

       Dec  23	1992:  Rik  Faith (faith@cs.unc.edu) applied bug fixes supplied by Willem Kasdorp

       30th April 1994 - 23rd February 2000: Wilf. (G.Wilford@ee.surrey.ac.uk) has been  develop-
       ing and maintaining this package with the help of a few dedicated people.

       30th October 1996 - 30th March 2001: Fabrizio Polacco <fpolacco@debian.org> maintained and
       enhanced this package for the Debian project, with the help of all the community.

       31st March 2001 - present day: Colin Watson <cjwatson@debian.org> is  now  developing  and
       maintaining man-db.

2.8.3					    2018-04-05					   MAN(1)

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 03:55 PM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
Show Password