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Contact Us Post Here to Contact Site Administrators and Moderators Question regarding my blog-thread Post 303046087 by Neo on Thursday 23rd of April 2020 10:11:25 AM
Thanks for asking and keep up the great contributions.
Test Your Knowledge in Computers #211
Difficulty: Easy
The first routing protocol that was widely implemented, the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), calculated the shortest route based on geographic hops (the number of countries that an IP packet had to traverse to reach the destination host).
True or False?

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FITCIRCLE(l)															      FITCIRCLE(l)

fitcircle - find mean position and pole of best-fit great [or small] circle to points on a sphere. SYNOPSIS
fitcircle [ xyfile ] -Lnorm [ -H[nrec] ] [ -S ] [ -V ] [ -: ] [ -bi[s][n] ] DESCRIPTION
fitcircle reads lon,lat [or lat,lon] values from the first two columns on standard input [or xyfile]. These are converted to cartesian three-vectors on the unit sphere. Then two locations are found: the mean of the input positions, and the pole to the great circle which best fits the input positions. The user may choose one or both of two possible solutions to this problem. The first is called -L1 and the second is called -L2. When the data are closely grouped along a great circle both solutions are similar. If the data have large dispersion, the pole to the great circle will be less well determined than the mean. Compare both solutions as a qualitative check. The -L1 solution is so called because it approximates the minimization of the sum of absolute values of cosines of angular distances. This solution finds the mean position as the Fisher average of the data, and the pole position as the Fisher average of the cross-products between the mean and the data. Averaging cross-products gives weight to points in proportion to their distance from the mean, analogous to the "leverage" of distant points in linear regression in the plane. The -L2 solution is so called because it approximates the minimization of the sum of squares of cosines of angular distances. It creates a 3 by 3 matrix of sums of squares of components of the data vectors. The eigenvectors of this matrix give the mean and pole locations. This method may be more subject to roundoff errors when there are thousands of data. The pole is given by the eigenvector corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue; it is the least-well represented factor in the data and is not easily estimated by either method. -L Specify the desired norm as 1 or 2, or use -L or -L3 to see both solutions. OPTIONS
xyfile ASCII [or binary, see -b] file containing lon,lat [lat,lon] values in the first 2 columns. If no file is specified, fitcircle will read from standard input. -H Input file(s) has Header record(s). Number of header records can be changed by editing your .gmtdefaults file. If used, GMT default is 1 header record. -S Attempt to fit a small circle instead of a great circle. The pole will be constrained to lie on the great circle connecting the pole of the best-fit great circle and the mean location of the data. -V Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr [Default runs "silently"]. -: Toggles between (longitude,latitude) and (latitude,longitude) input/output. [Default is (longitude,latitude)]. Applies to geo- graphic coordinates only. -bi Selects binary input. Append s for single precision [Default is double]. Append n for the number of columns in the binary file(s). [Default is 2 input columns]. EXAMPLES
Suppose you have lon,lat,grav data along a twisty ship track in the file ship.xyg. You want to project this data onto a great circle and resample it in distance, in order to filter it or check its spectrum. Try: fitcircle ship.xyg -L2 project ship.xyg -Cox/oy -Tpx/py -S -pz | sample1d -S-100 -I1 > Here, ox/oy is the lon/lat of the mean from fitcircle, and px/py is the lon/lat of the pole. The file has distance, gravity data sampled every 1 km along the great circle which best fits ship.xyg SEE ALSO
gmt(1gmt), project(1gmt), sample1d(1gmt) 1 Jan 2004 FITCIRCLE(l)

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