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UNIX Standards and Benchmarks UNIX & LINUX Benchmarks (Version 3.11) Linux Benchmarks Filesystem Benchmarks for HDDs and SSDs Post 303045337 by stomp on Tuesday 17th of March 2020 11:25:11 AM
Old 03-17-2020
I got some advices from a person who wrote his thesis on the subject of benchmarking:
  1. benchmark with the applications that are like the later used applications.
  2. test with concurrent i/o-requests(if that's your scenario, and it is like that almost always).
  3. test with small block sizes, as this will be the realistic work load for the storage in my case.
  4. test with virtual machines and with network, so it will be like the i/o when the system is used in production.

I'm already testing with small block sizes. Concurrent jobs testing is running at the moment. Real-world testing will be done at some later point.

--- Post updated at 04:53 PM ---

1. Performance Base Line of the system

This benchmark is to demonstrate the actual speed of the used system. It's in no way relevant for the later workload and just to make sure there storage system is generally performing without major trouble.

Interesting: RAID-5 has slower write speeds than expected. zfs-RAIDZ which is similar in it's data distributin is considerably faster.

Single-Disk, Sequential Read, Single Threaded, Test with 1M Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s

Code:
singledisk.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                   129088
singledisk.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.run_1.json                              129365
singledisk.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.run_1.json                             140170
singledisk.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                         140197
singledisk.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                         148060
singledisk.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.run_1.json                             148154
singledisk.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                        151971
singledisk.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.run_1.json                            154073

Single-Disk, Sequential Write, Single Threaded, Test with 1M Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s

Code:
singledisk.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.run_1.json                           112133
singledisk.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                       115764
singledisk.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                  130645
singledisk.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.run_1.json                             132107
singledisk.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                        132526
singledisk.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.run_1.json                            132902
singledisk.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                        146049
singledisk.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.run_1.json                            146220

Single-Disk, Sequential Read, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
singledisk.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.run_1.json                               33963
singledisk.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                    34625
singledisk.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.run_1.json                              36023
singledisk.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          36028
singledisk.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          37882
singledisk.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.run_1.json                              38013
singledisk.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                         38643
singledisk.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.run_1.json                             38647

Single-Disk, Sequential Write, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
singledisk.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.run_1.json                              890
singledisk.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          895
singledisk.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.run_1.json                               3026
singledisk.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                    3189
singledisk.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.run_1.json                              3465
singledisk.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          3476
singledisk.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          6972
singledisk.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.run_1.json                              7237

Multi-Disk, Sequential Read, Single Threaded, Test with 1M Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s

Code:
raid10.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                       267917
raid10.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                           287920
raid5.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                            291303
raid5.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                            294709
raid10btr_native.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.raid10btr_run_1.json            298280
raid10.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                         310551
raid10.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                            317500
raid10.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                          319551
raid5.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                           319678
raid10.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                             327557
raidz.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.run_1.json                                   329564
raid5.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                              330541
raid5.ext3.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                              335769
raidz.zfs.seq_read.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                        350659
raid10.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                             354560
raid10.ext4.seq_read.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                          355618
raid5.btrfs.seq_read.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                             383868

Multi-Disk, Sequential Write, Single Threaded, Test with 1M Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s

Code:
raid5.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                             63088
raid5.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                           63716
raid5.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                              68732
raid5.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                            70874
raid5.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                              73033
raid5.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.raid5.run_1.json                            73329
raid10.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                      197587
raid10.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                          202224
raid10.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                           211278
raid10.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                        217614
raid10.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                            221382
raid10.ext3.seq_write.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                         225781
raid10btr_native.btrfs.seq_write.bs_1M.raid10btr_run_1.json           244794
raid10.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.raid10.run_1.json                         254144
raid10.ext4.seq_write.bs_1M.lvm.run_1.json                            254237
raidz.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.compressed.run_1.json                       258104
raidz.zfs.seq_write.bs_1M.run_1.json                                  276822

Multi-Disk, Sequential Read, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
raid10.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                           11616
raid10.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                          28261
raid10.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              32650
raid10.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                           34177
raid10.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                        58822
raid10.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                            64036
raid5.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                             70986
raid5.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                             72429
raid10btr_native.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.raid10btr_run_1.json             74755
raid5.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            76245
raid10.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             77020
raid10.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              82203
raid5.ext3.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                               83717
raidz.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.run_1.json                                    85503
raidz.zfs.seq_read.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                         87909
raid5.ext4.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                               88718
raid5.btrfs.seq_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              96451

Multi-Disk, Sequential Write, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
raid5.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                               371
raid5.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                             374
raid10.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                          1238
raid10.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             1255
raid5.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                               1714
raid5.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                             1762
raid10btr_native.btrfs.seq_write.bs_4k.raid10btr_run_1.json             1846
raid5.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                               2313
raid5.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                             2408
raid10.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                            3256
raidz.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                         3381
raidz.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.run_1.json                                    3469
raid10.zfs.seq_write.bs_4k.compressed.run_1.json                        3638
raid10.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              4165
raid10.ext3.seq_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                           4373
raid10.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              5020
raid10.ext4.seq_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                           5442

--- Post updated at 04:56 PM ---

Quote:
Originally Posted by hicksd8
So I reckon that RAID3 will be slightly better than RAID5 (unless you're going to use RAID10 with a large number of members).
Why do you think that? I do not understand that RAID3 would perform better. As I understand it, it should be nearly the same. Only the parity goes to one dedicated disk and that disk is used heavily.

EDIT: Ahh. I possibly understand. RAID3 uses Byte-Level-Striping instead of Block-Level_Striping of RAID4/5 which may be calculated faster? Unfortunately Linux Software RAID does not support RAID3.

--- Post updated at 05:25 PM ---

2. First Insight: LVM seems not to impact read/write throughput or iops performance

Check the numbers by comparing the neighbor rows with and without lvm with the same other specs. The numbers of those pairs do only differ very little. I'll still test and watch the lvm performance readings, but I'll not report them any more, except there is some worth mentioning.

Single-Disk, Random Read, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
    singledisk.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.run_3.json                            144
    singledisk.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                        146
    
    singledisk.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.run_3.json                             150
    singledisk.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                         149
    
    singledisk.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.run_3.json                             147
    singledisk.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                         150

Single-Disk, Random Write, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
    singledisk.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.run_3.json                           192
    singledisk.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                       190

    singledisk.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.run_3.json                            290
    singledisk.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                        290
    
    singledisk.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_3.json                        304
    singledisk.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.run_3.json                            305

Multi-Disk, Random Read, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS

Code:
    raid10.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              66
    raid10.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                           66
    
    raid10.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                          149
    raid10.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             150
    
    raid10.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                         153
    raid10.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                            151
    
    raid5.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            154
    raid5.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              153
    
    raid5.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            155
    raid5.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              156
    
    raid5.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                           158
    raid5.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             159

Multi-Disk, Random Write, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. IOPS
Code:
    raid5.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                           64
    raid5.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             65
    
    raid5.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              67
    raid5.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            68
    
    raid5.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            78
    raid5.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              78
    
    raid10.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                           311
    raid10.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                        313
    
    raid10.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                         465
    raid10.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                            471
    
    raid10.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                         570
    raid10.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                            559

Multi-Disk, Random Read, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s
Code:
    raid10.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                            604
    raid10.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                         613

    raid10.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             600
    raid10.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                          594

    raid10.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             265
    raid10.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                          265

    raid5.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             636
    raid5.btrfs.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                           630

    raid5.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              622
    raid5.ext3.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            620

    raid5.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                              610
    raid5.ext4.random_read.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                            617

Multi-Disk, Random Write, Single Threaded, Test with 4K Block-Size. Bandwidth in KB/s

Code:
    raid10.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                          1245
    raid10.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                       1250

    raid10.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                           2234
    raid10.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                        2279

    raid10.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                           1884
    raid10.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.raid10.run_1.json                        1858

    raid5.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                            258
    raid5.btrfs.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                          257

    raid5.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             312
    raid5.ext3.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                           312

    raid5.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.lvm.run_1.json                             268
    raid5.ext4.random_write.bs_4k.raid5.run_1.json                           270


Last edited by stomp; 03-18-2020 at 11:50 AM..
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