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Top Forums Shell Programming and Scripting How to print in the new line? Post 302853133 by apmcd47 on Friday 13th of September 2013 09:31:31 AM
Old 09-13-2013
Code:
{
   read x
   y=$x
   i=1
   while [ $i -le $x ]
   do
      j=1
      while [ $j -le $y ]
      do
         echo -n $j
         j=`expr $j + 1`
      done
      echo
      i=`expr $i + 1`
      y=`expr $y - 1`
   done
}

I have replaced the prints with echos and indented for reading purposes. YOu had an if construct which I assume you put in for debugging purposes.

Andrew
 

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hexec(1)																  hexec(1)

NAME
hexec - a process execution hooking tool SYNOPSIS
hexec <OPTIONS> [expr] [cmd] [args...] DESCRIPTION
hexec is a tool to hook into process exececution calls (exec family of syscalls). You can define an expression that is executed against any hooked exec call. This expression may also contain a replacement exec call. OPTIONS SUMMARY
Here is a summary of the options to hexec. --help | -h Print a options/expr summary page --version | -v Print hexec version --log-out | -lo set output file for error and -print output OPTIONS
-h Print a options/expr summary page --help Print a options/expr summary page -lo Set the output file for error and -print output. This can be required if writing to stderr could cause malfunction because some processes read from stderr and expect a well defined output. EXPRESSIONS
The expression is executed against all process execution calls. If the expression returns true, the original call is skipped. <expr> -and <expr> <expr> -a <expr> <expr> <expr> Returns true if both expressions return true. If the left returns false, the right expression is never executed. <expr> -or <expr> <expr> -o <expr> Returns true if one of both expressions returns true. If the left returns true, the right expression is never executed. -path <pattern> Returns true if the path of the executable matches <pattern>. <pattern> is a bash compatible wild card pattern. -ipath <pattern> Same as -path, but case insensitive. -name <pattern> Returns true if the base name of the executable matches <pattern>. <pattern> is a bash compatible wild card pattern. -iname <pattern> Same as -name, but case insensitive. -contains <str> Returns true if the path of the executable containes the string <str>. -icontains <str> Same as -contains, but case insensitive. -print Print all arguments to the called process. Returns always true. -exec <cmd> [args...] ; Executes <cmd> with [args...] as arguments. This expression must be terminated with a semicolon. You can use argument placeholders in <cmd> and [args...] (see below). This expression always returns true. NOTE: Please be aware that you may need to escape or quote the terminating semicolon to not confuse your shell. -sh <script> Interprets <script> as a shell script by invoking /bin/sh with the arguments -c '<script>'. You can use argument placeholders inside <script>. Please note that -sh only expects a single argument and not a variable list of arguments (as -exec does). Using -sh is the same as using -exec sh -c <script>. PLACEHOLDERS FOR -exec EXPRESSION Every -exec expression can use placeholders in the argument list to obtain information from the original exec call. Each placeholder starts with { and ends with }. Use { if you want to use a { in your argument list. The placeholders are replaced when the -exec expression is evaluated. Placeholder types: {n} Will be replaced with the number of arguments in the original call. {<idx>} Will be replaced with the original argument at index <idx>. Example: {1} would give the first argument. You can prepend <idx> with placeholder flags. {} Will be replaced with all arguments from the original call. Each argument is seperated with a space. You can use placeholder flags. NOTE: The executable name is also considered as argument. This means that a call like "echo test" will result in two arguments, "echo" and "test". PLACEHOLDER FLAGS
s Every argument is inserted as single argument instead of concatenating all arguments. Consider the arguments 'a', 'b' and 'c'. Without s, -exec {} ; would result in -exec 'a b c' ;, which in many cases is not what you want. -exec {s} ; howewer would result in -exec 'a' 'b' 'c' ;. q Quote every single argument. e Escape all non alpha-numeric characters. This flag is very useful when using a "sh -c <...>" in the -exec expression. Examples -exec echo {} ; with the call 'a' 'b' 'c' results in: 'echo' 'a b c' -exec echo {q} ; with the call 'a' 'b' 'c' results in: 'echo' 'a' 'b' 'c' -exec sh -c 'echo {}; {}' ; with the call 'sh' '-c' 'gcc d.c >> log.txt' results in: 'sh' '-c' 'echo sh -c gcc d.c >> log.txt; sh -c gcc d.c >> log.txt' Please note that this will not do what you may expect, as the >> is handled wrong in this case. -exec sh -c 'echo {e}; {}' ; with the call 'sh' '-c' 'gcc d.c >> log.txt' results in: 'sh' '-c' 'echo sh -c gcc d.c >> log.txt; sh -c gcc d.c >> log.txt' CHANGES TO PROCESSES
hexec will add some environment variables to the hooked processes. These are (may not be complete): LD_PRELOAD hexec adds libhexec-hook.so to the list of preloaded libraries. HEXEC_EXPR_SHM Contains the name of the internal shared memory object. HEXEC_LOG_FD Contains the file descriptor for error and -print output. Please do never modify these environment variables. Also take care when you use these variables, because the name and content of the vari- ables may change in the future. EXAMPLES
hexec -name 'gcc' -exec ccache {s} ; make Calls make, which will then call gcc several times. The executable name of each hooked process execution is tested against the file pattern "gcc" and "ccache {s}" is called each time a match is found. '{s}' will be replaced with the original (the hooked) call. In this example, a call to "gcc -o test.o test.c" would be replaced with "ccache gcc -o test.o test.c" HOW IT WORKS
TODO BUGS
I'm sure there are alot...it's still beta :) AUTHOR
hexec was written by Alexander Block http://blocksoftware.net/ If you wish to report a problem or make a suggestion then please email ablock@blocksoftware.net hexec is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 or later. Please see the file COPYING for license details. November 2008 hexec(1)

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