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Special Forums UNIX and Linux Applications Infrastructure Monitoring Multiple Processors and Load Average Post 302841865 by indiansoil on Thursday 8th of August 2013 05:02:41 AM
Old 08-08-2013
Multiple Processors and Load Average

The following information shows that there are in total 4 Processors on this machine:

$ grep -i name /proc/cpuinfo
model name      : Dual-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2218
model name      : Dual-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2218
model name      : Dual-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2218
model name      : Dual-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2218

Does the command top reveal this information clearly?

$ top -b -n 1 | head
top - 08:52:40 up 1516 days, 16:57,  2 users,  load average: 1.12, 1.26, 1.32
Tasks:  97 total,   1 running,  96 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 18.2%us,  3.4%sy,  0.0%ni, 77.9%id,  0.3%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.3%si,  0.0%st
Mem:  32967244k total, 32844284k used,   122960k free,   216240k buffers
Swap:  2096472k total,   105872k used,  1990600k free,  2005636k cached

25437 root      23   0 22.7g  22g 9272 S 142.9 70.6  42140:15 java

Besides, the load average is:
1.12, 1.26, 1.32
over 1 which means over 100% CPU utilization. But what I understand is if there are 4 processors then the value of 1 would mean only 25% CPU utilization in total. Is this correct?

Next, the top command shows that the following java process is utilizing 142.9% of the CPU resource:

25437 root      23   0 22.7g  22g 9272 S 142.9 70.6  42140:15 java

Is this value relative to the total capacity of the CPU (with all its 4 processors)?

Can you please help me make it clear to myself what those things (4 processors, load average, 142.9 %CPU for Java) are showing exactly? How do they relate to each other?
Test Your Knowledge in Computers #492
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psradm(1M)						  System Administration Commands						psradm(1M)

psradm - change processor operational status SYNOPSIS
psradm -f | -i | -n | -s [-v] [-F] processor_id psradm -a -f | -i | -n | -s [-v] [-F] DESCRIPTION
The psradm utility changes the operational status of processors. The legal states for the processor are on-line, off-line, spare, faulted, and no-intr. An on-line processor processes LWPs (lightweight processes) and can be interrupted by I/O devices in the system. An off-line processor does not process any LWPs. Usually, an off-line processor is not interruptible by I/O devices in the system. On some processors or under certain conditions, it might not be possible to disable interrupts for an off-line processor. Thus, the actual effect of being off-line might vary from machine to machine. A spare processor does not process any LWPs. A spare processor can be brought on-line, off-line or to no-intr by a privileged user of the system or by the kernel in response to changes in the system state. A faulted processor is identified by the kernel, which monitors the behavior of processors over time. A privileged user can set the state of a faulted processor to be on-line, off-line, spare or no-intr, but must use the force option to do so. A no-intr processor processes LWPs but is not interruptible by I/O devices. A processor can not be taken off-line or made spare if there are LWPs that are bound to the processor unless the additional -F option is used. The -F option removes processor bindings of such LWPs before changing the processor's operational status. On some architectures, it might not be possible to take certain processors off-line or spare if, for example, the system depends on some resource provided by the processor. At least one processor in the system must be able to process LWPs. At least one processor must also be able to be interrupted. Since an off-line or spare processor can be interruptible, it is possible to have an operational system with one processor no-intr and all other processors off-line or spare but with one or more accepting interrupts. If any of the specified processors are powered off, psradm might power on one or more processors. Only superusers can use the psradm utility. OPTIONS
The following options are supported: -a Perform the action on all processors, or as many as possible. -f Take the specified processors off-line. -F Force the transition to the additional specified state. Required if one or more of the specified processors was in the faulted state. Set the specified processors to faulted, if no other transition option was specified. Forced transitions can only be made to faulted, spare, or off-line states. Administrators are encouraged to use the -Q option for pbind(1M) to find out which threads will be affected by forced a processor state transition. -i Set the specified processors no-intr. -n Bring the specified processors on-line. -s Make the specified processors spare. -v Output a message giving the results of each attempted operation. OPERANDS
The following operands are supported: processor_id The processor ID of the processor to be set on-line or off-line, spare, or no-intr. Specify processor_id as an individual processor number (for example, 3), multiple processor numbers separated by spaces (for example, 1 2 3), or a range of processor numbers (for example, 1-4). It is also possible to combine ranges and (indi- vidual or multiple) processor_ids (for example, 1-3 5 7-8 9). EXAMPLES
Example 1: Setting Processors to off-line The following example sets processors 2 and 3 off-line: % psradm -f 2 3 Example 2: Setting Processors to no-intr The following example sets processors 1 and 2 no-intr: % psradm -i 1 2 Example 3: Setting Processors to spare The following example sets processors 1 and 2 spare, even if either of the processors was in the faulted state: % psradm -F -s 1 2 Example 4: Setting All Processors on-line % psradm -a -n Example 5: Forcing Processors to off-line The following example sets processors 1 and 2 offline, and revokes the processor bindings from the processes bound to them: % psradm -F -f 1 2 EXIT STATUS
The following exit values are returned: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error occurred. FILES
/etc/wtmpx Records logging processor status changes ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWcsu | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ SEE ALSO
pbind(1M), psrinfo(1M), psrset(1M), p_online(2), processor_bind(2), attributes(5) DIAGNOSTICS
psradm: processor 4: Invalid argument The specified processor does not exist in the configuration. psradm: processor 3: Device busy The specified processor could not be taken off-line because it either has LWPs bound to it, is the last on-line processor in the sys- tem, or is needed by the system because it provides some essential service. psradm: processor 3: Device busy The specified processor could not be set no-intr because it is the last interruptible processor in the system, or or it is the only processor in the system that can service interrupts needed by the system. psradm: processor 3: Device busy The specified processor is powered off, and it cannot be powered on because some platform-specific resource is unavailable. psradm: processor 0: Not owner The user does not have permission to change processor status. psradm: processor 2: Operation not supported The specified processor is powered off, and the platform does not support power on of individual processors. SunOS 5.10 17 Aug 2004 psradm(1M)

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