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Top Forums UNIX for Dummies Questions & Answers changing shells in unix (im using putty) Post 302255176 by demwz on Thursday 6th of November 2008 03:23:18 AM
Old 11-06-2008
no you're wrong.
starting the tcsh by issuing "exec tcsh" or simpy typing "tcsh" is executing the c-shell which is looking for a .tcshrc in your bome directory. if present this file is sourced.
to create the file type touch ~/.tcshrc and edit the file with your favorite editor
Test Your Knowledge in Computers #132
Difficulty: Easy
Many of the command line and graphical utilities in a Linux distro are very similar to a Unix system.
True or False?

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runat(1)							   User Commands							  runat(1)

runat - execute command in extended attribute name space SYNOPSIS
/usr/bin/runat file [command] DESCRIPTION
The runat utility is used to execute shell commands in a file's hidden attribute directory. Effectively, this utility changes the current working directory to be the hidden attribute directory associated with the file argument and then executes the specified command in the bourne shell (/bin/sh). If no command argument is provided, an interactive shell is spawned. The environment variable $SHELL defines the shell to be spawned. If this variable is undefined, the default shell, /bin/sh, is used. The file argument can be any file, including a directory, that can support extended attributes. It is not necessary that this file have any attributes, or be prepared in any way, before invoking the runat command. OPERANDS
The following operands are supported: file Any file, including a directory, that can support extended attributes. command The command to be executed in an attribute directory. ERRORS
A non-zero exit status will be returned if runat cannot access the file argument, or the file argument does not support extended attributes. USAGE
See fsattr(5) for a detailed description of extended file attributes. The process context created by the runat command has its current working directory set to the hidden directory containing the file's extended attributes. The parent of this directory (the ".." entry) always refers to the file provided on the command line. As such, it may not be a directory. Therefore, commands (such as pwd) that depend upon the parent entry being well-formed (that is, referring to a direc- tory) may fail. In the absence of the command argument, runat will spawn a new interactive shell with its current working directory set to be the provided file's hidden attribute directory. Notice that some shells (such as zsh and tcsh) are not well behaved when the directory parent is not a directory, as described above. These shells should not be used with runat. EXAMPLES
Example 1: Using runat to list extended attributes on a file example% runat file.1 ls -l example% runat file.1 ls Example 2: Creating extended attributes example% runat file.2 cp /tmp/attrdata attr.1 example% runat file.2 cat /tmp/attrdata > attr.1 Example 3: Copying an attribute from one file to another example% runat file.2 cat attr.1 | runat file.1 "cat > attr.1" Example 4: Using runat to spawn an interactive shell example% runat file.3 /bin/sh This spawns a new shell in the attribute directory for file.3. Notice that the shell will not be able to determine what your current direc- tory is. To leave the attribute directory, either exit the spawned shell or change directory (cd) using an absolute path. Recommended methods for performing basic attribute operations: display runat file ls [options] read runat file cat attribute create/modify runat file cp absolute-file-path attribute delete runat file rm attribute permission changes runat file chmod mode attribute runat file chgrp group attribute runat file chown owner attribute interactive shell runat file /bin/sh or set your $SHELL to /bin/sh and runat file The above list includes commands that are known to work with runat. While many other commands may work, there is no guarantee that any beyond this list will work. Any command that relies on being able to determine its current working directory is likely to fail. Examples of such commands follow: Example 5: Using man in an attribute directory example% runat file.1 man runat getcwd: Not a directory Example 6: Spawning a tcsh shell in an attribute directory example% runat file.3 /usr/bin/tcsh tcsh: Not a directory tcsh: Trying to start from "/home/user" A new tcsh shell has been spawned with the current working directory set to the user's home directory. Example 7: Spawning a zsh shell in an attribute directory example% runat file.3 /usr/bin/zsh example% While the command appears to have worked, zsh has actually just changed the current working directory to '/'. This can be seen by using /bin/pwd: example% /bin/pwd / ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
SHELL Specifies the command shell to be invoked by runat. EXIT STATUS
The following exit values are returned: 125 The attribute directory of the file referenced by the file argument cannot be accessed. 126 The exec of the provided command argument failed. Otherwise, the exit status returned is the exit status of the shell invoked to execute the provided command. ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWcsu | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Evolving | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ SEE ALSO
open(2), attributes(5), fsattr(5) NOTES
It is not always obvious why a command fails in runat when it is unable to determine the current working directory. The errors resulting can be confusing and ambiguous (see the tcsh and zsh examples above). SunOS 5.10 22 Jun 2001 runat(1)

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