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STAT(2) 			     BSD System Calls Manual				  STAT(2)

     fstat, fstat64, lstat, lstat64, stat, stat64 -- get file status

     #include <sys/stat.h>

     fstat(int fildes, struct stat *buf);

     lstat(const char *restrict path, struct stat *restrict buf);

     stat(const char *restrict path, struct stat *restrict buf);

     fstat64(int fildes, struct stat64 *buf);

     lstat64(const char *restrict path, struct stat64 *restrict buf);

     stat64(const char *restrict path, struct stat64 *restrict buf);

     The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by path.  Read, write or
     execute permission of the named file is not required, but all directories listed in the path
     name leading to the file must be searchable.

     The lstat() function is like stat() except in the case where the named file is a symbolic
     link; lstat() returns information about the link, while stat() returns information about the
     file the link references.	Unlike other filesystem objects, symbolic links may not have an
     owner, group, access mode, times, etc.  Instead, these attributes may be taken from the
     directory that contains the link.	In this case, the only attributes returned from an
     lstat() that refer to the symbolic link itself are the file type (S_IFLNK), size, blocks,
     and link count (always 1).

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the file descriptor

     The buf argument is a pointer to a stat structure as defined by <sys/stat.h> and into which
     information is placed concerning the file.  When the macro _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is
     not defined (see below for more information about this macro), the stat structure is defined

     struct stat { /* when _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is NOT defined */
	 dev_t	  st_dev;    /* device inode resides on */
	 ino_t	  st_ino;    /* inode's number */
	 mode_t   st_mode;   /* inode protection mode */
	 nlink_t  st_nlink;  /* number of hard links to the file */
	 uid_t	  st_uid;    /* user-id of owner */
	 gid_t	  st_gid;    /* group-id of owner */
	 dev_t	  st_rdev;   /* device type, for special file inode */
	 struct timespec st_atimespec;	/* time of last access */
	 struct timespec st_mtimespec;	/* time of last data modification */
	 struct timespec st_ctimespec;	/* time of last file status change */
	 off_t	  st_size;   /* file size, in bytes */
	 quad_t   st_blocks; /* blocks allocated for file */
	 u_long   st_blksize;/* optimal file sys I/O ops blocksize */
	 u_long   st_flags;  /* user defined flags for file */
	 u_long   st_gen;    /* file generation number */

     However, when the macro _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is defined, the stat structure will now
     be defined as:

     struct stat { /* when _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is defined */
	 dev_t		 st_dev;	   /* ID of device containing file */
	 mode_t 	 st_mode;	   /* Mode of file (see below) */
	 nlink_t	 st_nlink;	   /* Number of hard links */
	 ino_t		 st_ino;	   /* File serial number */
	 uid_t		 st_uid;	   /* User ID of the file */
	 gid_t		 st_gid;	   /* Group ID of the file */
	 dev_t		 st_rdev;	   /* Device ID */
	 struct timespec st_atimespec;	   /* time of last access */
	 struct timespec st_mtimespec;	   /* time of last data modification */
	 struct timespec st_ctimespec;	   /* time of last status change */
	 struct timespec st_birthtimespec; /* time of file creation(birth) */
	 off_t		 st_size;	   /* file size, in bytes */
	 blkcnt_t	 st_blocks;	   /* blocks allocated for file */
	 blksize_t	 st_blksize;	   /* optimal blocksize for I/O */
	 uint32_t	 st_flags;	   /* user defined flags for file */
	 uint32_t	 st_gen;	   /* file generation number */
	 int32_t	 st_lspare;	   /* RESERVED: DO NOT USE! */
	 int64_t	 st_qspare[2];	   /* RESERVED: DO NOT USE! */

     The time-related fields of struct stat are as follows:

     st_atime	      Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the mknod(2), utimes(2) and
		      read(2) system calls.

     st_mtime	      Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the mknod(2), utimes(2) and
		      write(2) system calls.

     st_ctime	      Time when file status was last changed (inode data modification).  Changed
		      by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2), mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2),
		      utimes(2) and write(2) system calls.

     st_birthtime     Time of file creation. Only set once when the file is created. This field
		      is only available in the 64 bit inode variants. On filesystems where birth-
		      time is not available, this field holds the ctime instead.

     The size-related fields of the structures are as follows:

     st_blksize     The optimal I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks	    The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in 512-byte units.  As
		    short symbolic links are stored in the inode, this number may be zero.

     The status information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000	      /* type of file */
     #define	    S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define	    S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define	    S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define	    S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define	    S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define	    S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define	    S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
     #define	    S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner */
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */

     For a list of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).

     For a list of the file flags in the st_flags field, see <sys/stat.h> and chflags(2).

     In order to accommodate advanced capabilities of newer file systems, the struct stat, struct
     statfs, and struct dirent data structures were updated in Mac OSX 10.5.

     The most obvious change is the increased size of ino_t from 32 bits to 64 bits.  As a conse-
     quence, storing an ino_t in an int is no longer safe, and file formats storing ino_t as
     32-bit values may need to be updated.  There are other changes as well, such as the widening
     of f_fstypename, f_mntonname, and f_mntfromname in struct statfs.	Please refer to stat(2)
     and dir(5) for more detail on the specific changes to the other affected data structures.

     On platforms that existed before these updates were available, ABI compatibility is achieved
     by providing two implementations for related functions: one using the legacy data structures
     and one using the updated data structures.  Variants which make use of the newer structures
     have their symbols suffixed with $INODE64.  These $INODE64 suffixes are automatically
     appended by the compiler tool-chain and should not be used directly.

     Platforms that were released after these updates only have the newer variants available to
     them.  These platforms have the macro _DARWIN_FEATURE_ONLY_64_BIT_INODE defined.

     The _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE macro should not be set directly.  Instead, developers
     should make use of the _DARWIN_NO_64_BIT_INODE or _DARWIN_USE_64_BIT_INODE macros when the
     default variant is not desired.  The following table details the effects of defining these
     macros for different deployment targets.

		       _DARWIN_FEATURE_ONLY_64_BIT_INODE not defined
						|	Deployment Target
			    user defines:	|   < 10.5	 10.5	 > 10.5
				(none)		|   32-bit	32-bit	 64-bit
		       _DARWIN_NO_64_BIT_INODE	|   32-bit	32-bit	 32-bit
		       _DARWIN_USE_64_BIT_INODE |   32-bit	64-bit	 64-bit

			    user defines:	| Any Deployment Target
				(none)		| 64-bit-only
		       _DARWIN_NO_64_BIT_INODE	|   (error)
		       _DARWIN_USE_64_BIT_INODE | 64-bit-only

	   32-bit	32-bit inode values are enabled, and the legacy structures involving the
			ino_t type are in use.	The macro _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is not

	   64-bit	64-bit inode values are enabled, and the expanded structures involving
			the ino_t type are in use.  The macro _DARWIN_FEATURE_64_BIT_INODE is
			defined, and loader symbols will contain the $INODE64 suffix.

	   64-bit-only	Like 64-bit, except loader symbols do not have the $INODE64 suffix.

	   (error)	A compile time error is generated.

     Due to the increased benefits of the larger structure, it is highly recommended that devel-
     opers not define _DARWIN_NO_64_BIT_INODE and make use of _DARWIN_USE_64_BIT_INODE when tar-
     geting Mac OSX 10.5.

     In addition to the $INODE64 suffixed symbols, variants suffixed with 64 are also available
     for related functions.  These functions were provided as a way for developers to use the
     updated structures in code that also made use of the legacy structures.  The enlarged stat
     structures were also prefixed with 64 to distinguish them from their legacy variants.  These
     functions have been deprecated and should be avoided.

     Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned
     and errno is set to indicate the error.

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev, st_uid, st_gid,
     st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks fields.

     The fstat() system call will fail if:

     [EBADF]		fildes is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]		Sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurs while reading from or writing to the file system.

     The lstat() and stat() system calls will fail if:

     [EACCES]		Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.

     [EFAULT]		Sb or name points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurs while reading from or writing to the file system.

     [ELOOP]		Too many symbolic links are encountered in translating the pathname.
			This is taken to be indicative of a looping symbolic link.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]	A component of a pathname exceeds {NAME_MAX} characters, or an entire
			path name exceeds {PATH_MAX} characters.

     [ENOENT]		The named file does not exist.

     [ENOTDIR]		A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     The fstat(), lstat(), and stat() system calls will fail if:

     [EOVERFLOW]	The file size in bytes or the number of blocks allocated to the file or
			the file serial number cannot be represented correctly in the structure
			pointed to by buf.

     The file generation number, st_gen, is only available to the super-user.
     The fields in the stat structure currently marked st_spare1, st_spare2, and st_spare3 are
     present in preparation for inode time stamps expanding to 64 bits.  This, however, can break
     certain programs that depend on the time stamps being contiguous (in calls to utimes(2)).

     The fstat64, lstat64 and stat64 routines are equivalent to their corresponding non-64-suf-
     fixed routine, when 64-bit inodes are in effect.  They were added before there was support
     for the symbol variants, and so are now deprecated.  Instead of using these, set the
     _DARWIN_USE_64_BIT_INODE macro before including header files to force 64-bit inode support.

     The stat64 structure used by these deprecated routines is the same as the stat structure
     when 64-bit inodes are in effect (see above).

     chflags(2), chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), compat(5), statfs(2), symlink(7)

     Applying fstat to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd buffer, except for the
     blocksize field, and a unique device and inode number.

     The stat() and fstat() function calls are expected to conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988

     An lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.  The stat64(), fstat64(), and lstat64() system
     calls first appeared in Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard) and are now deprecated in favor of the cor-
     responding symbol variants.

4th Berkeley Distribution		   May 15, 2008 		4th Berkeley Distribution
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