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TCPDUMP(1)									       TCPDUMP(1)

NAME
       tcpdump - dump traffic on a network

SYNOPSIS
       tcpdump [ -AbdDefhHIJKlLnNOpqRStuUvxX# ] [ -B buffer_size ]
	       [ -c count ]
	       [ -C file_size ] [ -G rotate_seconds ] [ -F file ]
	       [ -i interface ] [ -j tstamp_type ] [ -m module ] [ -M secret ]
	       [ --number ] [ -Q in|out|inout ]
	       [ -r file ] [ -V file ] [ -s snaplen ] [ -T type ] [ -w file ]
	       [ -W filecount ]
	       [ -E spi@ipaddr algo:secret,...	]
	       [ -y datalinktype ] [ -z postrotate-command ] [ -Z user ]
	       [ --time-stamp-precision=tstamp_precision ] [ --version ]
	       [ expression ]

DESCRIPTION
       Tcpdump	prints	out  a description of the contents of packets on a network interface that
       match the boolean expression.  It can also be run with the -w flag,  which  causes  it  to
       save  the  packet data to a file for later analysis, and/or with the -r flag, which causes
       it to read from a saved packet file rather than to read packets from a network  interface.
       It can also be run with the -V flag, which causes it to read a list of saved packet files.
       In all cases, only packets that match expression will be processed by tcpdump.

       Tcpdump will, if not run with the -c flag, continue capturing packets until it  is  inter-
       rupted  by  a  SIGINT  signal (generated, for example, by typing your interrupt character,
       typically control-C) or a SIGTERM signal (typically generated with the  kill(1)	command);
       if  run	with  the -c flag, it will capture packets until it is interrupted by a SIGINT or
       SIGTERM signal or the specified number of packets have been processed.

       When tcpdump finishes capturing packets, it will report counts of:

	      packets ``captured'' (this is the number of packets that tcpdump has  received  and
	      processed);

	      packets  ``received  by  filter''  (the  meaning of this depends on the OS on which
	      you're running tcpdump, and possibly on the way the OS was configured - if a filter
	      was  specified  on  the  command line, on some OSes it counts packets regardless of
	      whether they were matched by the filter expression and, even if they  were  matched
	      by the filter expression, regardless of whether tcpdump has read and processed them
	      yet, on other OSes it counts only packets that were matched by the  filter  expres-
	      sion  regardless	of  whether tcpdump has read and processed them yet, and on other
	      OSes it counts only packets that were matched by the  filter  expression	and  were
	      processed by tcpdump);

	      packets ``dropped by kernel'' (this is the number of packets that were dropped, due
	      to a lack of buffer space, by the packet capture mechanism in the OS on which  tcp-
	      dump  is	running,  if  the OS reports that information to applications; if not, it
	      will be reported as 0).

       On platforms that support the SIGINFO signal, such as most BSDs (including Mac OS  X)  and
       Digital/Tru64  UNIX, it will report those counts when it receives a SIGINFO signal (gener-
       ated, for example, by typing your ``status'' character, typically control-T,  although  on
       some  platforms,  such as Mac OS X, the ``status'' character is not set by default, so you
       must set it with stty(1) in order to use it) and will continue capturing packets.

       Reading packets from a network interface may require that you have special privileges; see
       the  pcap(3PCAP) man page for details.  Reading a saved packet file doesn't require spe-
       cial privileges.

OPTIONS
       -A     Print each packet (minus its link level header) in ASCII.  Handy for capturing  web
	      pages.

       -b     Print the AS number in BGP packets in ASDOT notation rather than ASPLAIN notation.

       -B buffer_size
       --buffer-size=buffer_size
	      Set  the operating system capture buffer size to buffer_size, in units of KiB (1024
	      bytes).

       -c count
	      Exit after receiving count packets.

       -C file_size
	      Before writing a raw packet to a savefile, check	whether  the  file  is	currently
	      larger  than  file_size  and, if so, close the current savefile and open a new one.
	      Savefiles after the first savefile will have the name specified with the	-w  flag,
	      with  a  number  after  it,  starting  at  1  and  continuing upward.  The units of
	      file_size are millions of bytes (1,000,000 bytes, not 1,048,576 bytes).

       -d     Dump the compiled packet-matching code in a human readable form to standard  output
	      and stop.

       -dd    Dump packet-matching code as a C program fragment.

       -ddd   Dump packet-matching code as decimal numbers (preceded with a count).

       -D
       --list-interfaces
	      Print  the list of the network interfaces available on the system and on which tcp-
	      dump can capture packets.  For each network interface, a number  and  an	interface
	      name,  possibly  followed  by a text description of the interface, is printed.  The
	      interface name or the number can be supplied to the -i flag to specify an interface
	      on which to capture.

	      This can be useful on systems that don't have a command to list them (e.g., Windows
	      systems, or UNIX systems lacking ifconfig -a); the number can be useful on  Windows
	      2000 and later systems, where the interface name is a somewhat complex string.

	      The  -D  flag  will  not be supported if tcpdump was built with an older version of
	      libpcap that lacks the pcap_findalldevs() function.

       -e     Print the link-level header on each dump line.  This can be used, for  example,  to
	      print MAC layer addresses for protocols such as Ethernet and IEEE 802.11.

       -E     Use  spi@ipaddr  algo:secret for decrypting IPsec ESP packets that are addressed to
	      addr and contain Security Parameter  Index  value  spi.  This  combination  may  be
	      repeated with comma or newline separation.

	      Note that setting the secret for IPv4 ESP packets is supported at this time.

	      Algorithms  may  be des-cbc, 3des-cbc, blowfish-cbc, rc3-cbc, cast128-cbc, or none.
	      The default is des-cbc.  The ability to decrypt packets is only present if  tcpdump
	      was compiled with cryptography enabled.

	      secret  is  the ASCII text for ESP secret key.  If preceded by 0x, then a hex value
	      will be read.

	      The option assumes RFC2406 ESP, not RFC1827 ESP.	The option is only for	debugging
	      purposes,  and  the use of this option with a true `secret' key is discouraged.  By
	      presenting IPsec secret key onto command line you make it visible  to  others,  via
	      ps(1) and other occasions.

	      In  addition  to the above syntax, the syntax file name may be used to have tcpdump
	      read the provided file in. The file is opened upon receiving the first ESP  packet,
	      so  any  special	permissions  that tcpdump may have been given should already have
	      been given up.

       -f     Print `foreign' IPv4 addresses numerically rather than symbolically (this option is
	      intended to get around serious brain damage in Sun's NIS server -- usually it hangs
	      forever translating non-local internet numbers).

	      The test for `foreign' IPv4 addresses is done using the IPv4 address and netmask of
	      the  interface  on which capture is being done.  If that address or netmask are not
	      available, available, either because the interface on which capture is  being  done
	      has  no  address or netmask or because the capture is being done on the Linux "any"
	      interface, which can capture on more than one interface, this option will not  work
	      correctly.

       -F file
	      Use file as input for the filter expression.  An additional expression given on the
	      command line is ignored.

       -G rotate_seconds
	      If specified, rotates the dump file specified with the -w option every  rotate_sec-
	      onds  seconds.  Savefiles will have the name specified by -w which should include a
	      time format as defined by strftime(3).  If no time format is  specified,	each  new
	      file will overwrite the previous.

	      If  used	in  conjunction  with  the  -C	option,  filenames  will take the form of
	      `file<count>'.

       -h
       --help Print the tcpdump and libpcap version strings, print a usage message, and exit.

       --version
	      Print the tcpdump and libpcap version strings and exit.

       -H     Attempt to detect 802.11s draft mesh headers.

       -i interface
       --interface=interface
	      Listen on interface.  If unspecified, tcpdump searches the  system  interface  list
	      for  the	lowest	numbered, configured up interface (excluding loopback), which may
	      turn out to be, for example, ``eth0''.

	      On Linux systems with 2.2 or later kernels, an interface argument of ``any'' can be
	      used  to	capture  packets  from all interfaces.	Note that captures on the ``any''
	      device will not be done in promiscuous mode.

	      If the -D flag is supported, an interface number as printed by  that  flag  can  be
	      used as the interface argument.

       -I
       --monitor-mode
	      Put  the	interface  in "monitor mode"; this is supported only on IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi
	      interfaces, and supported only on some operating systems.

	      Note that in monitor mode the adapter might  disassociate  from  the  network  with
	      which  it's  associated,	so that you will not be able to use any wireless networks
	      with that adapter.  This could prevent accessing files  on  a  network  server,  or
	      resolving host names or network addresses, if you are capturing in monitor mode and
	      are not connected to another network with another adapter.

	      This flag will affect the output of the -L flag.	If -I isn't specified, only those
	      link-layer  types available when not in monitor mode will be shown; if -I is speci-
	      fied, only those link-layer types available when in monitor mode will be shown.

       -j tstamp_type
       --time-stamp-type=tstamp_type
	      Set the time stamp type for the capture to tstamp_type.  The names to use  for  the
	      time  stamp  types are given in pcap-tstamp(7); not all the types listed there will
	      necessarily be valid for any given interface.

       -J
       --list-time-stamp-types
	      List the supported time stamp types for the interface and exit.  If the time  stamp
	      type cannot be set for the interface, no time stamp types are listed.

       --time-stamp-precision=tstamp_precision
	      When  capturing,	set the time stamp precision for the capture to tstamp_precision.
	      Note that availability of high precision time stamps (nanoseconds) and their actual
	      accuracy	is platform and hardware dependent.  Also note that when writing captures
	      made with nanosecond accuracy to a savefile,  the  time  stamps  are  written  with
	      nanosecond  resolution,  and  the file is written with a different magic number, to
	      indicate that the time stamps are in seconds and nanoseconds; not all programs that
	      read pcap savefiles will be able to read those captures.

       When  reading a savefile, convert time stamps to the precision specified by timestamp_pre-
       cision, and display them with that resolution.  If the precision specified  is  less  than
       the precision of time stamps in the file, the conversion will lose precision.

       The supported values for timestamp_precision are micro for microsecond resolution and nano
       for nanosecond resolution.  The default is microsecond resolution.

       -K
       --dont-verify-checksums
	      Don't attempt to verify IP, TCP, or UDP checksums.  This is useful  for  interfaces
	      that  perform some or all of those checksum calculation in hardware; otherwise, all
	      outgoing TCP checksums will be flagged as bad.

       -l     Make stdout line buffered.  Useful if you want to see the data while capturing  it.
	      E.g.,

		     tcpdump -l | tee dat

	      or

		     tcpdump -l > dat & tail -f dat

	      Note  that  on Windows,``line buffered'' means ``unbuffered'', so that WinDump will
	      write each character individually if -l is specified.

	      -U is similar to -l in its behavior, but it  will  cause	output	to  be	``packet-
	      buffered'',  so  that  the  output  is  written to stdout at the end of each packet
	      rather than at the end of each line; this is buffered on all  platforms,	including
	      Windows.

       -L
       --list-data-link-types
	      List  the known data link types for the interface, in the specified mode, and exit.
	      The list of known data link types may be dependent on the specified mode; for exam-
	      ple,  on some platforms, a Wi-Fi interface might support one set of data link types
	      when not in monitor mode (for example, it might support only fake Ethernet headers,
	      or  might support 802.11 headers but not support 802.11 headers with radio informa-
	      tion) and another set of data link types when in	monitor  mode  (for  example,  it
	      might  support  802.11  headers,	or 802.11 headers with radio information, only in
	      monitor mode).

       -m module
	      Load SMI MIB module definitions from file module.  This option can be used  several
	      times to load several MIB modules into tcpdump.

       -M secret
	      Use secret as a shared secret for validating the digests found in TCP segments with
	      the TCP-MD5 option (RFC 2385), if present.

       -n     Don't convert addresses (i.e., host addresses, port numbers, etc.) to names.

       -N     Don't print domain name qualification of host names.  E.g., if you give  this  flag
	      then tcpdump will print ``nic'' instead of ``nic.ddn.mil''.

       -#
       --number
	      Print an optional packet number at the beginning of the line.

       -O
       --no-optimize
	      Do  not run the packet-matching code optimizer.  This is useful only if you suspect
	      a bug in the optimizer.

       -p
       --no-promiscuous-mode
	      Don't put the interface into promiscuous mode.  Note that the interface might be in
	      promiscuous  mode for some other reason; hence, `-p' cannot be used as an abbrevia-
	      tion for `ether host {local-hw-addr} or ether broadcast'.

       -Q direction
       --direction=direction
	      Choose send/receive direction direction for which packets should be captured.  Pos-
	      sible values are `in', `out' and `inout'. Not available on all platforms.

       -q     Quick  (quiet?)  output.	 Print	less  protocol	information  so  output lines are
	      shorter.

       -R     Assume ESP/AH packets to be based on old specification (RFC1825  to  RFC1829).   If
	      specified,  tcpdump will not print replay prevention field.  Since there is no pro-
	      tocol version field in ESP/AH specification, tcpdump cannot deduce the  version  of
	      ESP/AH protocol.

       -r file
	      Read packets from file (which was created with the -w option or by other tools that
	      write pcap or pcap-ng files).  Standard input is used if file is ``-''.

       -S
       --absolute-tcp-sequence-numbers
	      Print absolute, rather than relative, TCP sequence numbers.

       -s snaplen
       --snapshot-length=snaplen
	      Snarf snaplen bytes of data from each packet  rather  than  the  default	of  65535
	      bytes.  Packets truncated because of a limited snapshot are indicated in the output
	      with ``[|proto]'', where proto is the name of the protocol level at which the trun-
	      cation  has  occurred.  Note that taking larger snapshots both increases the amount
	      of time it takes to process packets  and,  effectively,  decreases  the  amount  of
	      packet  buffering.  This may cause packets to be lost.  You should limit snaplen to
	      the smallest number that will capture the protocol  information  you're  interested
	      in.   Setting  snaplen to 0 sets it to the default of 65535, for backwards compati-
	      bility with recent older versions of tcpdump.

       -T type
	      Force packets selected by "expression" to be interpreted the specified type.   Cur-
	      rently known types are aodv (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocol), carp (Com-
	      mon Address Redundancy Protocol), cnfp (Cisco NetFlow protocol), lmp (Link  Manage-
	      ment  Protocol),	pgm  (Pragmatic  General  Multicast),  pgm_zmtp1 (ZMTP/1.0 inside
	      PGM/EPGM), radius (RADIUS), rpc (Remote Procedure Call),	rtp  (Real-Time  Applica-
	      tions  protocol), rtcp (Real-Time Applications control protocol), snmp (Simple Net-
	      work Management Protocol), tftp (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), vat (Visual Audio
	      Tool),  wb (distributed White Board), zmtp1 (ZeroMQ Message Transport Protocol 1.0)
	      and vxlan (Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network).

	      Note that the pgm type above affects UDP interpretation only,  the  native  PGM  is
	      always  recognised  as  IP  protocol  113 regardless. UDP-encapsulated PGM is often
	      called "EPGM" or "PGM/UDP".

	      Note that the pgm_zmtp1 type above affects interpretation of both  native  PGM  and
	      UDP  at once. During the native PGM decoding the application data of an ODATA/RDATA
	      packet would be decoded as a ZeroMQ datagram with ZMTP/1.0 frames.  During the  UDP
	      decoding in addition to that any UDP packet would be treated as an encapsulated PGM
	      packet.

       -t     Don't print a timestamp on each dump line.

       -tt    Print an unformatted timestamp on each dump line.

       -ttt   Print a delta (micro-second resolution) between current and previous line  on  each
	      dump line.

       -tttt  Print a timestamp in default format proceeded by date on each dump line.

       -ttttt Print a delta (micro-second resolution) between current and first line on each dump
	      line.

       -u     Print undecoded NFS handles.

       -U
       --packet-buffered
	      If the -w option is  not	specified,  make  the  printed	packet	output	``packet-
	      buffered'';  i.e., as the description of the contents of each packet is printed, it
	      will be written to the standard output, rather than, when not writing to	a  termi-
	      nal, being written only when the output buffer fills.

	      If  the  -w  option  is  specified,  make  the  saved  raw  packet output ``packet-
	      buffered''; i.e., as each packet is saved, it will be written to the  output  file,
	      rather than being written only when the output buffer fills.

	      The  -U  flag  will  not be supported if tcpdump was built with an older version of
	      libpcap that lacks the pcap_dump_flush() function.

       -v     When parsing and printing, produce (slightly more) verbose  output.   For  example,
	      the  time  to  live,  identification,  total length and options in an IP packet are
	      printed.	Also enables additional packet integrity checks such as verifying the  IP
	      and ICMP header checksum.

	      When  writing to a file with the -w option, report, every 10 seconds, the number of
	      packets captured.

       -vv    Even more verbose output.  For example, additional  fields  are  printed	from  NFS
	      reply packets, and SMB packets are fully decoded.

       -vvv   Even  more  verbose  output.   For example, telnet SB ... SE options are printed in
	      full.  With -X Telnet options are printed in hex as well.

       -V file
	      Read a list of filenames from file. Standard input is used if file is ``-''.

       -w file
	      Write the raw packets to file rather than parsing and printing them out.	They  can
	      later be printed with the -r option.  Standard output is used if file is ``-''.

	      This  output  will  be  buffered if written to a file or pipe, so a program reading
	      from the file or pipe may not see packets for an arbitrary  amount  of  time  after
	      they  are received.  Use the -U flag to cause packets to be written as soon as they
	      are received.

	      The MIME type application/vnd.tcpdump.pcap has been registered with IANA	for  pcap
	      files. The filename extension .pcap appears to be the most commonly used along with
	      .cap and .dmp. Tcpdump itself doesn't check  the	extension  when  reading  capture
	      files  and doesn't add an extension when writing them (it uses magic numbers in the
	      file header instead). However, many operating systems and applications will use the
	      extension if it is present and adding one (e.g. .pcap) is recommended.

	      See pcap-savefile(5) for a description of the file format.

       -W     Used in conjunction with the -C option, this will limit the number of files created
	      to the specified number, and begin overwriting files from the beginning, thus  cre-
	      ating a 'rotating' buffer.  In addition, it will name the files with enough leading
	      0s to support the maximum number of files, allowing them to sort correctly.

	      Used in conjunction with the -G option, this will limit the number of rotated  dump
	      files that get created, exiting with status 0 when reaching the limit. If used with
	      -C as well, the behavior will result in cyclical files per timeslice.

       -x     When parsing and printing, in addition to printing  the  headers	of  each  packet,
	      print the data of each packet (minus its link level header) in hex.  The smaller of
	      the entire packet or snaplen bytes will be printed.  Note that this is  the  entire
	      link-layer  packet,  so for link layers that pad (e.g. Ethernet), the padding bytes
	      will also be printed when the higher layer packet is shorter than the required pad-
	      ding.

       -xx    When  parsing  and  printing,  in  addition to printing the headers of each packet,
	      print the data of each packet, including its link level header, in hex.

       -X     When parsing and printing, in addition to printing  the  headers	of  each  packet,
	      print the data of each packet (minus its link level header) in hex and ASCII.  This
	      is very handy for analysing new protocols.

       -XX    When parsing and printing, in addition to printing  the  headers	of  each  packet,
	      print the data of each packet, including its link level header, in hex and ASCII.

       -y datalinktype
       --linktype=datalinktype
	      Set the data link type to use while capturing packets to datalinktype.

       -z postrotate-command
	      Used in conjunction with the -C or -G options, this will make tcpdump run " postro-
	      tate-command file " where file is the savefile being closed  after  each	rotation.
	      For  example, specifying -z gzip or -z bzip2 will compress each savefile using gzip
	      or bzip2.

	      Note that tcpdump will run the command in parallel to the capture, using the lowest
	      priority so that this doesn't disturb the capture process.

	      And  in  case  you would like to use a command that itself takes flags or different
	      arguments, you can always write a shell script that will take the savefile name  as
	      the  only argument, make the flags & arguments arrangements and execute the command
	      that you want.

       -Z user
       --relinquish-privileges=user
	      If tcpdump is running as root, after opening the capture device or input	savefile,
	      but  before  opening  any  savefiles for output, change the user ID to user and the
	      group ID to the primary group of user.

	      This behavior can also be enabled by default at compile time.

	expression
	      selects which packets will be dumped.  If no expression is given,  all  packets  on
	      the  net	will  be  dumped.  Otherwise, only packets for which expression is `true'
	      will be dumped.

	      For the expression syntax, see pcap-filter(7).

	      The expression argument can be passed to tcpdump as either a single Shell argument,
	      or  as  multiple	Shell arguments, whichever is more convenient.	Generally, if the
	      expression contains Shell metacharacters, such as backslashes used to escape proto-
	      col  names,  it  is  easier  to pass it as a single, quoted argument rather than to
	      escape the Shell metacharacters.	Multiple arguments are concatenated  with  spaces
	      before being parsed.

EXAMPLES
       To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
	      tcpdump host sundown

       To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
	      tcpdump host helios and \( hot or ace \)

       To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
	      tcpdump ip host ace and not helios

       To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
	      tcpdump net ucb-ether

       To  print  all  ftp  traffic  through  internet gateway snup: (note that the expression is
       quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)interpreting the parentheses):
	      tcpdump 'gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)'

       To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to  one
       other net, this stuff should never make it onto your local net).
	      tcpdump ip and not net localnet

       To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation that
       involves a non-local host.
	      tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn|tcp-fin) != 0 and not src and dst net localnet'

       To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets  that  contain
       data,  not,  for  example,  SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets.  (IPv6 is left as an
       exercise for the reader.)
	      tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'

       To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
	      tcpdump 'gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576'

       To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via  Ethernet  broadcast  or
       multicast:
	      tcpdump 'ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224'

       To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
	      tcpdump 'icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply'

OUTPUT FORMAT
       The  output of tcpdump is protocol dependent.  The following gives a brief description and
       examples of most of the formats.

       Link Level Headers

       If the '-e' option is given, the link level header is  printed  out.   On  Ethernets,  the
       source and destination addresses, protocol, and packet length are printed.

       On FDDI networks, the  '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the `frame control' field,  the
       source and destination addresses, and the packet length.  (The `frame control' field  gov-
       erns the interpretation of the rest of the packet.  Normal packets (such as those contain-
       ing IP datagrams) are `async' packets, with a priority value between 0 and 7; for example,
       `async4'.  Such packets are assumed to contain an 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) packet;
       the LLC header is printed if it is not an ISO datagram or a so-called SNAP packet.

       On Token Ring networks, the '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the `access  control'  and
       `frame  control'  fields, the source and destination addresses, and the packet length.  As
       on FDDI networks, packets are assumed to contain an LLC packet.	Regardless of whether the
       '-e'  option  is  specified  or not, the source routing information is printed for source-
       routed packets.

       On 802.11 networks, the '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the	`frame	control'  fields,
       all  of	the  addresses in the 802.11 header, and the packet length.  As on FDDI networks,
       packets are assumed to contain an LLC packet.

       (N.B.: The following description assumes familiarity with the SLIP  compression	algorithm
       described in RFC-1144.)

       On SLIP links, a direction indicator (``I'' for inbound, ``O'' for outbound), packet type,
       and compression information are printed out.  The packet type is printed first.	The three
       types are ip, utcp, and ctcp.  No further link information is printed for ip packets.  For
       TCP packets, the connection identifier is printed following the type.  If  the  packet  is
       compressed,  its encoded header is printed out.	The special cases are printed out as *S+n
       and *SA+n, where n is the amount by which the sequence number (or sequence number and ack)
       has  changed.  If it is not a special case, zero or more changes are printed.  A change is
       indicated by U (urgent pointer), W (window), A (ack), S (sequence number), and  I  (packet
       ID),  followed by a delta (+n or -n), or a new value (=n).  Finally, the amount of data in
       the packet and compressed header length are printed.

       For example, the following line shows an outbound compressed TCP packet, with an  implicit
       connection identifier; the ack has changed by 6, the sequence number by 49, and the packet
       ID by 6; there are 3 bytes of data and 6 bytes of compressed header:
	      O ctcp * A+6 S+49 I+6 3(6)

       ARP/RARP Packets

       Arp/rarp output shows the type of request and its arguments.  The format is intended to be
       self  explanatory.   Here  is a short sample taken from the start of an `rlogin' from host
       rtsg to host csam:
	      arp who-has csam tell rtsg
	      arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       The first line says that rtsg sent an arp packet asking for the Ethernet address of inter-
       net  host  csam.   Csam	replies  with  its  Ethernet  address  (in this example, Ethernet
       addresses are in caps and internet addresses in lower case).

       This would look less redundant if we had done tcpdump -n:
	      arp who-has 128.3.254.6 tell 128.3.254.68
	      arp reply 128.3.254.6 is-at 02:07:01:00:01:c4

       If we had done tcpdump -e, the fact that the first packet is broadcast and the  second  is
       point-to-point would be visible:
	      RTSG Broadcast 0806  64: arp who-has csam tell rtsg
	      CSAM RTSG 0806  64: arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       For the first packet this says the Ethernet source address is RTSG, the destination is the
       Ethernet broadcast address, the type field contained hex 0806  (type  ETHER_ARP)  and  the
       total length was 64 bytes.

       TCP Packets

       (N.B.:The  following  description  assumes  familiarity with the TCP protocol described in
       RFC-793.  If you are not familiar with the protocol, neither this description nor  tcpdump
       will be of much use to you.)

       The general format of a tcp protocol line is:
	      src > dst: flags data-seqno ack window urgent options
       Src  and dst are the source and destination IP addresses and ports.  Flags are some combi-
       nation of S (SYN), F (FIN), P (PUSH), R (RST), U (URG), W (ECN CWR), E (ECN-Echo)  or  `.'
       (ACK),  or `none' if no flags are set.  Data-seqno describes the portion of sequence space
       covered by the data in this packet (see example below).	Ack is	sequence  number  of  the
       next  data expected the other direction on this connection.  Window is the number of bytes
       of receive buffer space available the other direction on this connection.   Urg	indicates
       there  is `urgent' data in the packet.  Options are tcp options enclosed in angle brackets
       (e.g., <mss 1024>).

       Src, dst and flags are always present.  The other fields depend on  the	contents  of  the
       packet's tcp protocol header and are output only if appropriate.

       Here is the opening portion of an rlogin from host rtsg to host csam.
	      rtsg.1023 > csam.login: S 768512:768512(0) win 4096 <mss 1024>
	      csam.login > rtsg.1023: S 947648:947648(0) ack 768513 win 4096 <mss 1024>
	      rtsg.1023 > csam.login: . ack 1 win 4096
	      rtsg.1023 > csam.login: P 1:2(1) ack 1 win 4096
	      csam.login > rtsg.1023: . ack 2 win 4096
	      rtsg.1023 > csam.login: P 2:21(19) ack 1 win 4096
	      csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 1:2(1) ack 21 win 4077
	      csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 2:3(1) ack 21 win 4077 urg 1
	      csam.login > rtsg.1023: P 3:4(1) ack 21 win 4077 urg 1
       The first line says that tcp port 1023 on rtsg sent a packet to port login on csam.  The S
       indicates that the SYN flag was set.  The packet sequence number was 768512  and  it  con-
       tained no data.	(The notation is `first:last(nbytes)' which means `sequence numbers first
       up to but not including last which is nbytes bytes of user data'.)  There  was  no  piggy-
       backed  ack,  the available receive window was 4096 bytes and there was a max-segment-size
       option requesting an mss of 1024 bytes.

       Csam replies with a similar packet except it includes a piggy-backed ack for  rtsg's  SYN.
       Rtsg  then  acks csam's SYN.  The `.' means the ACK flag was set.  The packet contained no
       data so there is no data sequence number.  Note that the ack sequence number  is  a  small
       integer(1).   The  first  time tcpdump sees a tcp `conversation', it prints the sequence
       number from the packet.	On subsequent packets of the conversation, the difference between
       the  current  packet's  sequence number and this initial sequence number is printed.  This
       means that sequence numbers after the first can be interpreted as relative byte	positions
       in  the	conversation's	data  stream (with the first data byte each direction being `1').
       `-S' will override this feature, causing the original sequence numbers to be output.

       On the 6th line, rtsg sends csam 19 bytes of data (bytes 2 through 20 in the rtsg ->  csam
       side  of  the  conversation).   The PUSH flag is set in the packet.  On the 7th line, csam
       says it's received data sent by rtsg up to but not including byte 21.  Most of  this  data
       is apparently sitting in the socket buffer since csam's receive window has gotten 19 bytes
       smaller.  Csam also sends one byte of data to rtsg in this packet.  On  the  8th  and  9th
       lines, csam sends two bytes of urgent, pushed data to rtsg.

       If  the	snapshot  was  small  enough  that tcpdump didn't capture the full TCP header, it
       interprets as much of the header as it can and then reports  ``[|tcp]''	to  indicate  the
       remainder  could  not  be  interpreted.	If the header contains a bogus option (one with a
       length that's either too small or beyond the end of the header),  tcpdump  reports  it  as
       ``[bad  opt]''  and  does not interpret any further options (since it's impossible to tell
       where they start).  If the header length indicates options are present but the IP datagram
       length  is  not	long  enough  for the options to actually be there, tcpdump reports it as
       ``[bad hdr length]''.

       Capturing TCP packets with particular flag combinations (SYN-ACK, URG-ACK, etc.)

       There are 8 bits in the control bits section of the TCP header:

	      CWR | ECE | URG | ACK | PSH | RST | SYN | FIN

       Let's assume that we want to watch packets used in establishing a TCP connection.   Recall
       that TCP uses a 3-way handshake protocol when it initializes a new connection; the connec-
       tion sequence with regard to the TCP control bits is

	      1) Caller sends SYN
	      2) Recipient responds with SYN, ACK
	      3) Caller sends ACK

       Now we're interested in capturing packets that have only the SYN bit set (Step  1).   Note
       that  we don't want packets from step 2 (SYN-ACK), just a plain initial SYN.  What we need
       is a correct filter expression for tcpdump.

       Recall the structure of a TCP header without options:

	0			     15 			     31
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |	  source port	       |       destination port        |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |			sequence number 		       |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |		     acknowledgment number		       |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |  HL   | rsvd  |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|	window size	       |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |	 TCP checksum	       |       urgent pointer	       |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------

       A TCP header usually holds 20 octets of data, unless options are present.  The first  line
       of the graph contains octets 0 - 3, the second line shows octets 4 - 7 etc.

       Starting to count with 0, the relevant TCP control bits are contained in octet 13:

	0	      7|	     15|	     23|	     31
       ----------------|---------------|---------------|----------------
       |  HL   | rsvd  |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|	window size	       |
       ----------------|---------------|---------------|----------------
       |	       |  13th octet   |	       |	       |

       Let's have a closer look at octet no. 13:

		       |	       |
		       |---------------|
		       |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
		       |---------------|
		       |7   5	3     0|

       These  are  the	TCP control bits we are interested in.	We have numbered the bits in this
       octet from 0 to 7, right to left, so the PSH bit is bit number 3, while	the  URG  bit  is
       number 5.

       Recall that we want to capture packets with only SYN set.  Let's see what happens to octet
       13 if a TCP datagram arrives with the SYN bit set in its header:

		       |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
		       |---------------|
		       |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
		       |---------------|
		       |7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|

       Looking at the control bits section we see that only bit number 1 (SYN) is set.

       Assuming that octet number 13 is an 8-bit unsigned integer  in  network	byte  order,  the
       binary value of this octet is

	      00000010

       and its decimal representation is

	  7	6     5     4	  3	2     1     0
       0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2  =  2

       We're  almost  done,  because  now  we know that if only SYN is set, the value of the 13th
       octet in the TCP header, when interpreted as a 8-bit  unsigned  integer	in  network  byte
       order, must be exactly 2.

       This relationship can be expressed as
	      tcp[13] == 2

       We  can use this expression as the filter for tcpdump in order to watch packets which have
       only SYN set:
	      tcpdump -i xl0 tcp[13] == 2

       The expression says "let the 13th octet of a TCP datagram have the decimal value 2", which
       is exactly what we want.

       Now,  let's  assume  that  we need to capture SYN packets, but we don't care if ACK or any
       other TCP control bit is set at the same time.  Let's see what happens to octet 13 when	a
       TCP datagram with SYN-ACK set arrives:

	    |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
	    |---------------|
	    |0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0|
	    |---------------|
	    |7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|

       Now bits 1 and 4 are set in the 13th octet.  The binary value of octet 13 is

		   00010010

       which translates to decimal

	  7	6     5     4	  3	2     1     0
       0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2   = 18

       Now we can't just use 'tcp[13] == 18' in the tcpdump filter expression, because that would
       select only those packets that have SYN-ACK set, but not those with only SYN set.   Remem-
       ber that we don't care if ACK or any other control bit is set as long as SYN is set.

       In  order  to achieve our goal, we need to logically AND the binary value of octet 13 with
       some other value to preserve the SYN bit.  We know that we want SYN to be set in any case,
       so we'll logically AND the value in the 13th octet with the binary value of a SYN:

		 00010010 SYN-ACK	       00000010 SYN
	    AND  00000010 (we want SYN)   AND  00000010 (we want SYN)
		 --------		       --------
	    =	 00000010		  =    00000010

       We  see that this AND operation delivers the same result regardless whether ACK or another
       TCP control bit is set.	The decimal representation of the AND value as well as the result
       of  this  operation  is	2 (binary 00000010), so we know that for packets with SYN set the
       following relation must hold true:

	      ( ( value of octet 13 ) AND ( 2 ) ) == ( 2 )

       This points us to the tcpdump filter expression
		   tcpdump -i xl0 'tcp[13] & 2 == 2'

       Some offsets and field values may be expressed as names rather than as numeric values. For
       example	tcp[13]  may  be replaced with tcp[tcpflags]. The following TCP flag field values
       are also available: tcp-fin, tcp-syn, tcp-rst, tcp-push, tcp-act, tcp-urg.

       This can be demonstrated as:
		   tcpdump -i xl0 'tcp[tcpflags] & tcp-push != 0'

       Note that you should use single quotes or a backslash in the expression to  hide  the  AND
       ('&') special character from the shell.

       UDP Packets

       UDP format is illustrated by this rwho packet:
	      actinide.who > broadcast.who: udp 84
       This  says  that  port who on host actinide sent a udp datagram to port who on host broad-
       cast, the Internet broadcast address.  The packet contained 84 bytes of user data.

       Some UDP services are recognized (from the source or  destination  port	number)  and  the
       higher  level  protocol	information printed.  In particular, Domain Name service requests
       (RFC-1034/1035) and Sun RPC calls (RFC-1050) to NFS.

       UDP Name Server Requests

       (N.B.:The following description assumes	familiarity  with  the	Domain	Service  protocol
       described  in RFC-1035.	If you are not familiar with the protocol, the following descrip-
       tion will appear to be written in greek.)

       Name server requests are formatted as
	      src > dst: id op? flags qtype qclass name (len)
	      h2opolo.1538 > helios.domain: 3+ A? ucbvax.berkeley.edu.(37)
       Host h2opolo asked the domain server on helios for an address record (qtype=A)  associated
       with the name ucbvax.berkeley.edu.  The query id was `3'.  The `+' indicates the recursion
       desired flag was set.  The query length was 37 bytes, not including the UDP and IP  proto-
       col  headers.  The query operation was the normal one, Query, so the op field was omitted.
       If the op had been anything else, it would have been printed between the `3' and the  `+'.
       Similarly,  the qclass was the normal one, C_IN, and omitted.  Any other qclass would have
       been printed immediately after the `A'.

       A few anomalies are checked and may result in extra fields enclosed  in	square	brackets:
       If  a  query contains an answer, authority records or additional records section, ancount,
       nscount, or arcount are printed as `[na]', `[nn]' or  `[nau]' where n is  the  appropriate
       count.  If any of the response bits are set (AA, RA or rcode) or any of the `must be zero'
       bits are set in bytes two and three, `[b2&3=x]' is printed, where x is the  hex	value  of
       header bytes two and three.

       UDP Name Server Responses

       Name server responses are formatted as
	      src > dst:  id op rcode flags a/n/au type class data (len)
	      helios.domain > h2opolo.1538: 3 3/3/7 A 128.32.137.3(273)
	      helios.domain > h2opolo.1537: 2 NXDomain* 0/1/0(97)
       In  the first example, helios responds to query id 3 from h2opolo with 3 answer records, 3
       name server records and 7 additional records.  The first answer record is type A (address)
       and  its  data  is  internet address 128.32.137.3.  The total size of the response was 273
       bytes, excluding UDP and IP headers.  The op (Query)  and  response  code  (NoError)  were
       omitted, as was the class (C_IN) of the A record.

       In  the	second	example,  helios responds to query 2 with a response code of non-existent
       domain (NXDomain) with no answers, one name server and  no  authority  records.	 The  `*'
       indicates  that	the  authoritative  answer  bit was set.  Since there were no answers, no
       type, class or data were printed.

       Other flag characters that might appear are `-' (recursion available, RA, not set) and `|'
       (truncated  message,  TC,  set).   If  the  `question' section doesn't contain exactly one
       entry, `[nq]' is printed.

       SMB/CIFS decoding

       tcpdump now includes fairly extensive SMB/CIFS/NBT decoding for data on	UDP/137,  UDP/138
       and TCP/139.  Some primitive decoding of IPX and NetBEUI SMB data is also done.

       By default a fairly minimal decode is done, with a much more detailed decode done if -v is
       used.  Be warned that with -v a single SMB packet may take up a page or more, so only  use
       -v if you really want all the gory details.

       For information on SMB packet formats and what all the fields mean see www.cifs.org or the
       pub/samba/specs/ directory on your favorite samba.org mirror site.  The SMB  patches  were
       written by Andrew Tridgell (tridge@samba.org).

       NFS Requests and Replies

       Sun NFS (Network File System) requests and replies are printed as:
	      src.sport > dst.nfs: NFS request xid xid len op args
	      src.nfs > dst.dport: NFS reply xid xid reply stat len op results
	      sushi.1023 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 26377
		   112 readlink fh 21,24/10.73165
	      wrl.nfs > sushi.1023: NFS reply xid 26377
		   reply ok 40 readlink "../var"
	      sushi.1022 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 8219
		   144 lookup fh 9,74/4096.6878 "xcolors"
	      wrl.nfs > sushi.1022: NFS reply xid 8219
		   reply ok 128 lookup fh 9,74/4134.3150
       In  the	first line, host sushi sends a transaction with id 26377 to wrl.  The request was
       112 bytes, excluding the UDP and IP headers.  The operation was a readlink (read  symbolic
       link) on file handle (fh) 21,24/10.731657119.  (If one is lucky, as in this case, the file
       handle can be interpreted as a major,minor device number pair, followed by the inode  num-
       ber and generation number.) In the second line, wrl replies `ok' with the same transaction
       id and the contents of the link.

       In the third line, sushi asks (using a new transaction id) wrl to lookup the  name  `xcol-
       ors'  in  directory  file  9,74/4096.6878.  In the fourth line, wrl sends a reply with the
       respective transaction id.

       Note that the data printed depends on the operation type.  The format is  intended  to  be
       self  explanatory  if read in conjunction with an NFS protocol spec.  Also note that older
       versions of tcpdump printed NFS packets in a slightly different format: the transaction id
       (xid) would be printed instead of the non-NFS port number of the packet.

       If the -v (verbose) flag is given, additional information is printed.  For example:
	      sushi.1023 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 79658
		   148 read fh 21,11/12.195 8192 bytes @ 24576
	      wrl.nfs > sushi.1023: NFS reply xid 79658
		   reply ok 1472 read REG 100664 ids 417/0 sz 29388
       (-v  also  prints the IP header TTL, ID, length, and fragmentation fields, which have been
       omitted from this example.)  In the first line, sushi asks wrl to  read	8192  bytes  from
       file 21,11/12.195, at byte offset 24576.  Wrl replies `ok'; the packet shown on the second
       line is the first fragment of the reply, and hence is only  1472  bytes	long  (the  other
       bytes will follow in subsequent fragments, but these fragments do not have NFS or even UDP
       headers and so might not be printed, depending on the filter  expression  used).   Because
       the  -v	flag is given, some of the file attributes (which are returned in addition to the
       file data) are printed: the file type (``REG'', for  regular  file),  the  file	mode  (in
       octal), the uid and gid, and the file size.

       If the -v flag is given more than once, even more details are printed.

       Note  that  NFS	requests  are  very  large and much of the detail won't be printed unless
       snaplen is increased.  Try using `-s 192' to watch NFS traffic.

       NFS reply packets do not explicitly identify the RPC operation.	 Instead,  tcpdump  keeps
       track  of  ``recent''  requests, and matches them to the replies using the transaction ID.
       If a reply does not closely follow the corresponding request, it might not be parsable.

       AFS Requests and Replies

       Transarc AFS (Andrew File System) requests and replies are printed as:

	      src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type
	      src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type service call call-name args
	      src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type service reply call-name args
	      elvis.7001 > pike.afsfs:
		   rx data fs call rename old fid 536876964/1/1 ".newsrc.new"
		   new fid 536876964/1/1 ".newsrc"
	      pike.afsfs > elvis.7001: rx data fs reply rename
       In the first line, host elvis sends a RX packet to pike.  This was a RX data packet to the
       fs (fileserver) service, and is the start of an RPC call.  The RPC call was a rename, with
       the old directory file id of 536876964/1/1 and an old filename of `.newsrc.new', and a new
       directory  file	id  of	536876964/1/1  and  a  new  filename of `.newsrc'.  The host pike
       responds with a RPC reply to the rename call (which was successful, because it was a  data
       packet and not an abort packet).

       In  general,  all  AFS  RPCs are decoded at least by RPC call name.  Most AFS RPCs have at
       least some of the arguments decoded (generally only the `interesting' arguments, for  some
       definition of interesting).

       The format is intended to be self-describing, but it will probably not be useful to people
       who are not familiar with the workings of AFS and RX.

       If the -v (verbose) flag is given twice, acknowledgement  packets  and  additional  header
       information  is printed, such as the RX call ID, call number, sequence number, serial num-
       ber, and the RX packet flags.

       If the -v flag is given twice, additional information is printed, such as the RX call  ID,
       serial  number,	and the RX packet flags.  The MTU negotiation information is also printed
       from RX ack packets.

       If the -v flag is given three times, the security index and service id are printed.

       Error codes are printed for abort packets, with	the  exception	of  Ubik  beacon  packets
       (because abort packets are used to signify a yes vote for the Ubik protocol).

       Note  that  AFS	requests are very large and many of the arguments won't be printed unless
       snaplen is increased.  Try using `-s 256' to watch AFS traffic.

       AFS reply packets do not explicitly identify the RPC operation.	 Instead,  tcpdump  keeps
       track  of  ``recent''  requests, and matches them to the replies using the call number and
       service ID.  If a reply does not closely follow the corresponding request, it might not be
       parsable.

       KIP AppleTalk (DDP in UDP)

       AppleTalk  DDP packets encapsulated in UDP datagrams are de-encapsulated and dumped as DDP
       packets (i.e., all the UDP header information is discarded).  The file /etc/atalk.names is
       used  to  translate  AppleTalk net and node numbers to names.  Lines in this file have the
       form
	      number	name

	      1.254	     ether
	      16.1	icsd-net
	      1.254.110 ace
       The first two lines give the names of AppleTalk networks.  The third line gives	the  name
       of  a particular host (a host is distinguished from a net by the 3rd octet in the number -
       a net number must have two octets and a host number must have three octets.)   The  number
       and  name  should  be separated by whitespace (blanks or tabs).	The /etc/atalk.names file
       may contain blank lines or comment lines (lines starting with a `#').

       AppleTalk addresses are printed in the form
	      net.host.port

	      144.1.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220
	      office.2 > icsd-net.112.220
	      jssmag.149.235 > icsd-net.2
       (If the /etc/atalk.names doesn't exist or doesn't contain  an  entry  for  some	AppleTalk
       host/net  number,  addresses are printed in numeric form.)  In the first example, NBP (DDP
       port 2) on net 144.1 node 209 is sending to whatever is listening on port 220 of net  icsd
       node  112.   The  second line is the same except the full name of the source node is known
       (`office').  The third line is a send from port 235 on net jssmag node 149 to broadcast on
       the  icsd-net  NBP  port (note that the broadcast address(255) is indicated by a net name
       with no host number - for this reason it's a good idea to keep node names  and  net  names
       distinct in /etc/atalk.names).

       NBP  (name  binding  protocol) and ATP (AppleTalk transaction protocol) packets have their
       contents interpreted.  Other protocols just dump the protocol name (or number if  no  name
       is registered for the protocol) and packet size.

       NBP packets are formatted like the following examples:
	      icsd-net.112.220 > jssmag.2: nbp-lkup 190: "=:LaserWriter@*"
	      jssmag.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "RM1140:LaserWriter@*" 250
	      techpit.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "techpit:LaserWriter@*" 186
       The  first  line  is  a name lookup request for laserwriters sent by net icsd host 112 and
       broadcast on net jssmag.  The nbp id for the lookup is 190.  The second line shows a reply
       for  this request (note that it has the same id) from host jssmag.209 saying that it has a
       laserwriter resource named "RM1140" registered on port 250.  The  third	line  is  another
       reply to the same request saying host techpit has laserwriter "techpit" registered on port
       186.

       ATP packet formatting is demonstrated by the following example:
	      jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:0(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:1(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:2(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:4(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:6(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp*12266:7(512) 0xae040000
	      jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<3,5> 0xae030001
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3(512) 0xae040000
	      helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5(512) 0xae040000
	      jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-rel  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
	      jssmag.209.133 > helios.132: atp-req* 12267<0-7> 0xae030002
       Jssmag.209 initiates transaction id 12266 with host helios by requesting up to  8  packets
       (the `<0-7>').  The hex number at the end of the line is the value of the `userdata' field
       in the request.

       Helios responds with 8 512-byte packets.  The `:digit' following the transaction id  gives
       the  packet  sequence  number in the transaction and the number in parens is the amount of
       data in the packet, excluding the atp header.  The `*' on packet 7 indicates that the  EOM
       bit was set.

       Jssmag.209  then  requests  that packets 3 & 5 be retransmitted.  Helios resends them then
       jssmag.209 releases the transaction.  Finally, jssmag.209 initiates the next request.  The
       `*' on the request indicates that XO (`exactly once') was not set.

       IP Fragmentation

       Fragmented Internet datagrams are printed as
	      (frag id:size@offset+)
	      (frag id:size@offset)
       (The first form indicates there are more fragments.  The second indicates this is the last
       fragment.)

       Id is the fragment id.  Size is the fragment size (in  bytes)  excluding  the  IP  header.
       Offset is this fragment's offset (in bytes) in the original datagram.

       The  fragment  information  is  output for each fragment.  The first fragment contains the
       higher level protocol header and the frag info is printed after the protocol info.   Frag-
       ments after the first contain no higher level protocol header and the frag info is printed
       after the source and destination addresses.  For example, here is part of an ftp from ari-
       zona.edu  to  lbl-rtsg.arpa over a CSNET connection that doesn't appear to handle 576 byte
       datagrams:
	      arizona.ftp-data > rtsg.1170: . 1024:1332(308) ack 1 win 4096 (frag 595a:328@0+)
	      arizona > rtsg: (frag 595a:204@328)
	      rtsg.1170 > arizona.ftp-data: . ack 1536 win 2560
       There are a couple of things to note here:  First, addresses in the 2nd line don't include
       port  numbers.	This is because the TCP protocol information is all in the first fragment
       and we have no idea what the port or sequence numbers are when we print	the  later  frag-
       ments.  Second, the tcp sequence information in the first line is printed as if there were
       308 bytes of user data when, in fact, there are 512 bytes (308 in the first frag  and  204
       in  the second).  If you are looking for holes in the sequence space or trying to match up
       acks with packets, this can fool you.

       A packet with the IP don't fragment flag is marked with a trailing (DF).

       Timestamps

       By default, all output lines are preceded by a timestamp.  The timestamp  is  the  current
       clock time in the form
	      hh:mm:ss.frac
       and  is	as  accurate  as  the kernel's clock.  The timestamp reflects the time the kernel
       first saw the packet.  No attempt is made to account for the time  lag  between	when  the
       Ethernet  interface removed the packet from the wire and when the kernel serviced the `new
       packet' interrupt.

SEE ALSO
       stty(1), pcap(3PCAP), bpf(4), nit(4P), pcap-savefile(5), pcap-filter(7), pcap-tstamp(7)

	      http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/application/vnd.tcpdump.pcap

AUTHORS
       The original authors are:

       Van Jacobson, Craig Leres and Steven McCanne, all of the Lawrence Berkeley National  Labo-
       ratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

       It is currently being maintained by tcpdump.org.

       The current version is available via http:

	      http://www.tcpdump.org/

       The original distribution is available via anonymous ftp:

	      ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/old/tcpdump.tar.Z

       IPv6/IPsec  support  is added by WIDE/KAME project.  This program uses Eric Young's SSLeay
       library, under specific configurations.

BUGS
       Please send problems, bugs, questions, desirable enhancements, patches etc. to:

	      tcpdump-workers@lists.tcpdump.org

       NIT doesn't let you watch your own outbound traffic, BPF will.  We recommend that you  use
       the latter.

       On Linux systems with 2.0[.x] kernels:

	      packets on the loopback device will be seen twice;

	      packet  filtering  cannot be done in the kernel, so that all packets must be copied
	      from the kernel in order to be filtered in user mode;

	      all of a packet, not just the part that's  within  the  snapshot	length,  will  be
	      copied from the kernel (the 2.0[.x] packet capture mechanism, if asked to copy only
	      part of a packet to userland, will not report the true length of the  packet;  this
	      would cause most IP packets to get an error from tcpdump);

	      capturing on some PPP devices won't work correctly.

       We recommend that you upgrade to a 2.2 or later kernel.

       Some  attempt  should be made to reassemble IP fragments or, at least to compute the right
       length for the higher level protocol.

       Name server inverse queries are not dumped correctly:  the  (empty)  question  section  is
       printed	rather	than real query in the answer section.	Some believe that inverse queries
       are themselves a bug and prefer to fix the program generating them rather than tcpdump.

       A packet trace that crosses a daylight savings time change will give  skewed  time  stamps
       (the time change is ignored).

       Filter  expressions  on	fields	other than those in Token Ring headers will not correctly
       handle source-routed Token Ring packets.

       Filter expressions on fields other than those in 802.11 headers will not correctly  handle
       802.11 data packets with both To DS and From DS set.

       ip6  proto  should  chase header chain, but at this moment it does not.	ip6 protochain is
       supplied for this behavior.

       Arithmetic expression against transport layer headers, like tcp[0], does not work  against
       IPv6 packets.  It only looks at IPv4 packets.

					   11 July 2014 			       TCPDUMP(1)
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