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GPART(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual				 GPART(8)

NAME
     gpart -- control utility for the disk partitioning GEOM class

SYNOPSIS
     To add support for the disk partitioning GEOM class, place one or more of the following
     lines in your kernel configuration file:

	   options GEOM_PART_APM
	   options GEOM_PART_BSD
	   options GEOM_PART_GPT
	   options GEOM_PART_MBR
	   options GEOM_PART_PC98
	   options GEOM_PART_VTOC8

     The GEOM_PART_APM option adds support for the Apple Partition Map (APM) found on Apple Mac-
     intosh computers.	The GEOM_PART_BSD option adds support for the traditional BSD disklabel.
     The GEOM_PART_GPT option adds support for the GUID Partition Table (GPT) found on Intel Ita-
     nium computers and Intel-based Macintosh computers.  The GEOM_PART_MBR option adds support
     for the Master Boot Record (MBR) found on PCs and used on many removable media.  The
     GEOM_PART_PC98 option adds support for the MBR variant as used on NEC PC-98 computers.  The
     GEOM_PART_VTOC8 option adds support for Sun's SMI VTOC8 label as found on UltraSPARC-based
     computers.

     Usage of the gpart(8) utility:

     gpart add -b start -s size -t type [-i index] [-l label] [-f flags] geom
     gpart bootcode [-b bootcode] [-p partcode -i index] [-f flags] geom
     gpart commit geom
     gpart create -s scheme [-n entries] [-f flags] provider
     gpart delete -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart destroy [-f flags] geom
     gpart modify -i index [-l label] [-t type] [-f flags] geom
     gpart set -a attrib -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart show [geom ...]
     gpart undo geom
     gpart unset -a attrib -i index [-f flags] geom

DESCRIPTION
     The gpart utility is used to partition GEOM providers, normally disks.  The first argument
     of which is the action to be taken:

     add      Add a new partition to the partitioning scheme given by geom.  The partition begins
	      on the logical block address given by the -b start option.  Its size is expressed
	      in logical block numbers and given by the -s size option.  The type of the parti-
	      tion is given by the -t type option.  Partition types are discussed in the section
	      entitled "Partition Types".

	      Addition options include:

	      -i index	   The index in the partition table at which the new partition is to be
			   placed. The index determines the name of the device special file used
			   to represent the partition.

	      -l label	   The label attached to the partition.  This option is only valid when
			   used on partitioning schemes that support partition labels.

	      -f flags	   Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			   flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     bootcode
	      Embed bootstrap code into the partitioning scheme's metadata on the geom (using -b
	      bootcode) or write bootstrap code into a partition (using -p partcode and -i
	      index).  Not all partitioning schemes have embedded bootstrap code, so the -b
	      bootcode option is scheme-specific in nature.  For the GPT scheme, embedded boot-
	      strap code is supported.	The bootstrap code is embedded in the protective MBR
	      rather than the GPT.  The -b bootcode option specifies a file that contains the
	      bootstrap code.  The contents and size of the file are determined by the partition-
	      ing scheme.  For the MBR scheme, it's a 512 byte file of which the first 446 bytes
	      are installed as bootstrap code.	The -p partcode option specifies a file that con-
	      tains the bootstrap code intended to be written to a partition.  The partition is
	      specified by the -i index option.  The size of the file must be smaller than the
	      size of the partition.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     commit   Commit any pending changes for geom geom.  All actions are being committed by
	      default and will not result in pending changes.  Actions can be modified with the
	      -f flags option so that they are not being committed by default.	As such, they
	      become pending.  Pending changes are reflected by the geom and the gpart utility,
	      but they are not actually written to disk.  The commit action will write any and
	      all pending changes to disk.

     create   Create a new partitioning scheme on a provider given by provider.  The -s scheme
	      option determines the scheme to use.  The kernel needs to have support for a par-
	      ticular scheme before that scheme can be used to partition a disk.

	      Addition options include:

	      -n entries  The number of entries in the partition table.  Every partitioning
			  scheme has a minimum and a maximum number of entries and this option
			  allows tables to be created with the number of entries that lies any-
			  where between the minimum and the maximum.  Some schemes have a maximum
			  equal to the minimum and some schemes have a maximum large enough to be
			  considered unlimited.  By default, partition tables are created with
			  the minimum number of entries.

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     delete   Delete a partition from geom geom and further identified by the -i index option.
	      The partition cannot be actively used by the kernel.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     destroy  Destroy the partitioning scheme as implemented by geom geom.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     modify   Modify a partition from geom geom and further identified by the -i index option.
	      Only the the type and/or label of the partition can be modified.	To change the
	      type of a partition, specify the new type with the -t type option.  To change the
	      label of a partition, specify the new label with the -l label option.  Not all par-
	      titioning schemes support labels and it is invalid to try to change a partition
	      label in such cases.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     set      Set the named attribute on the partition entry.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

     show     Show the current partition information of the specified geoms or all geoms if none
	      are specified.

     undo     Revert any pending changes.  This action is the opposite of the commit action and
	      can be used to undo any changes that have not been committed.

     unset    Clear the named attribute on the partition entry.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.  See the section entitled "Operational
			  flags" below for a discussion about its use.

PARTITION TYPES
     The gpart utility uses symbolic names for common partition types to avoid that the user
     needs to know what the partitioning scheme in question is and what the actual number or
     identification needs to be used for a particular type.  the gpart utility also allows the
     user to specify scheme-specific partition types for partition types that don't have symbol
     names.  The symbolic names currently understood are:

     efi	    The system partition for computers that use the Extensible Firmware Interface
		    (EFI).  In such cases, the GPT partitioning scheme is being used and the
		    actual partition type for the system partition can also be specified as
		    "!c12a7328-f81f-11d2-ba4b-00a0c93ec93ab".

     freebsd	    A FreeBSD partition that uses the BSD disklabel to sub-divide the partition
		    into file systems.	This is a legacy partition type and should not be used
		    for the APM or GPT schemes.  The scheme-specific types are "!165" for MBR,
		    "!FreeBSD" for APM, and "!516e7cb4-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT.

     freebsd-boot   A FreeBSD partition dedicated to bootstrap code.  The scheme-specific type is
		    "!83bd6b9d-7f41-11dc-be0b-001560b84f0f" for GPT.

     freebsd-swap   A FreeBSD partition dedicated to swap space.  The scheme-specific types are
		    "!FreeBSD-swap" for APM, and "!516e7cb5-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT.

     freebsd-ufs    A FreeBSD partition that contains a UFS or UFS2 file system.  the scheme-spe-
		    cific types are "!FreeBSD-UFS" for APM, and
		    "!516e7cb6-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT.

     freebsd-vinum  A FreeBSD partition that contains a Vinum volume.  The scheme-specific types
		    are "!FreeBSD-Vinum" for APM, and "!516e7cb8-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for
		    GPT.

     freebsd-zfs    A FreeBSD partition that contains a ZFS volume.  The scheme-specific types
		    are "!FreeBSD-ZFS" for APM, and "!516e7cba-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for
		    GPT.

     mbr	    A partition that is sub-partitioned by a master boot record (MBR).	This type
		    is known as "!024dee41-33e7-11d3-9d69-0008c781f39f" by GPT.

OPERATIONAL FLAGS
     Actions other than the commit and undo actions take an optional -f flags option.  This
     option is used to specify action-specific operational flags.  By default, the gpart utility
     defines the 'C' flag so that the action is immediately committed.	The user can specify -f x
     to have the action result in a pending change that can later, with other pending changes, be
     committed as a single compound change with the commit action or reverted with the undo
     action.

EXIT STATUS
     Exit status is 0 on success, and 1 if the command fails.

EXAMPLES
     Create GPT scheme on ad0.

	   /sbin/gpart create -s GPT ad0

     Embed GPT bootstrap code into protective MBR.

	   /sbin/gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr ad0

     Create a dedicated freebsd-boot partition that can boot FreeBSD from a freebsd-ufs parti-
     tion, and install bootstrap code into it.	This partition must be larger than /boot/gptboot,
     or the GPT boot you are planning to write.  A size of 15 blocks (7680 bytes) would be suffi-
     cient for booting from UFS but lets use 128 blocks (64 KB) here in this example, in order to
     reserve some space for potential future need (e.g. from a ZFS partition).

	   /sbin/gpart add -b 34 -s 128 -t freebsd-boot ad0
	   /sbin/gpart bootcode -p /boot/gptboot -i 1 ad0

     Create a 512MB-sized freebsd-ufs partition that would contain UFS where the system boot
     from.

	   /sbin/gpart add -b 162 -s 1048576 -t freebsd-ufs ad0

SEE ALSO
     geom(4), geom(8),

HISTORY
     The gpart utility appeared in FreeBSD 7.0.

AUTHORS
     Marcel Moolenaar <marcel@FreeBSD.org>

BSD					   Nov 18, 2008 				      BSD
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