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WRITE(2)			     BSD System Calls Manual				 WRITE(2)

NAME
     write, writev, pwrite, pwritev -- write output

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/uio.h>
     #include <unistd.h>

     ssize_t
     write(int d, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     ssize_t
     pwrite(int d, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, off_t offset);

     ssize_t
     writev(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

     ssize_t
     pwritev(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt, off_t offset);

DESCRIPTION
     The write() system call attempts to write nbytes of data to the object referenced by the
     descriptor d from the buffer pointed to by buf.  The writev() system call performs the same
     action, but gathers the output data from the iovcnt buffers specified by the members of the
     iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1].  The pwrite() and pwritev() system calls per-
     form the same functions, but write to the specified position in the file without modifying
     the file pointer.

     For writev() and pwritev(), the iovec structure is defined as:

	   struct iovec {
		   void   *iov_base;  /* Base address. */
		   size_t iov_len;    /* Length. */
	   };

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in memory from which data
     should be written.  The writev() system call will always write a complete area before pro-
     ceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the write() starts at a position given by the pointer associ-
     ated with d, see lseek(2).  Upon return from write(), the pointer is incremented by the num-
     ber of bytes which were written.

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always write from the current position.  The value
     of the pointer associated with such an object is undefined.

     If the real user is not the super-user, then write() clears the set-user-id bit on a file.
     This prevents penetration of system security by a user who ``captures'' a writable set-user-
     id file owned by the super-user.

     When using non-blocking I/O on objects such as sockets that are subject to flow control,
     write() and writev() may write fewer bytes than requested; the return value must be noted,
     and the remainder of the operation should be retried when possible.

RETURN VALUES
     Upon successful completion the number of bytes which were written is returned.  Otherwise a
     -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS
     The write(), writev(), pwrite() and pwritev() system calls will fail and the file pointer
     will remain unchanged if:

     [EBADF]		The d argument is not a valid descriptor open for writing.

     [EPIPE]		An attempt is made to write to a pipe that is not open for reading by any
			process.

     [EPIPE]		An attempt is made to write to a socket of type SOCK_STREAM that is not
			connected to a peer socket.

     [EFBIG]		An attempt was made to write a file that exceeds the process's file size
			limit or the maximum file size.

     [EFAULT]		Part of iov or data to be written to the file points outside the
			process's allocated address space.

     [EINVAL]		The pointer associated with d was negative.

     [ENOSPC]		There is no free space remaining on the file system containing the file.

     [EDQUOT]		The user's quota of disk blocks on the file system containing the file
			has been exhausted.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

     [EINTR]		A signal interrupted the write before it could be completed.

     [EAGAIN]		The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data could be written
			immediately.

     [EROFS]		An attempt was made to write over a disk label area at the beginning of a
			slice.	Use disklabel(8) -W to enable writing on the disk label area.

     [EINVAL]		The value nbytes is greater than INT_MAX.

     In addition, writev() and pwritev() may return one of the following errors:

     [EDESTADDRREQ]	The destination is no longer available when writing to a UNIX domain
			datagram socket on which connect(2) had been used to set a destination
			address.

     [EINVAL]		The iovcnt argument was less than or equal to 0, or greater than IOV_MAX.

     [EINVAL]		One of the iov_len values in the iov array was negative.

     [EINVAL]		The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array overflowed a 32-bit inte-
			ger.

     [ENOBUFS]		The mbuf pool has been completely exhausted when writing to a socket.

     The pwrite() and pwritev() system calls may also return the following errors:

     [EINVAL]		The offset value was negative.

     [ESPIPE]		The file descriptor is associated with a pipe, socket, or FIFO.

SEE ALSO
     fcntl(2), lseek(2), open(2), pipe(2), select(2)

STANDARDS
     The write() system call is expected to conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').  The
     writev() and pwrite() system calls are expected to conform to X/Open Portability Guide
     Issue 4, Version 2 (``XPG4.2'').

HISTORY
     The pwritev() system call appeared in FreeBSD 6.0.  The pwrite() function appeared in AT&T
     System V Release 4 UNIX.  The writev() system call appeared in 4.2BSD.  The write() function
     appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					   July 7, 2005 				      BSD
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