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PKG_ADD(1)			   BSD General Commands Manual			       PKG_ADD(1)

NAME
     pkg_add -- a utility for installing software package distributions

SYNOPSIS
     pkg_add [-viInfFrRMSK] [-t template] [-p prefix] [-P prefix] [-C chrootdir] pkg-name
	     [pkg-name ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The pkg_add command is used to extract packages that have been previously created with the
     pkg_create(1) command.

WARNING
     Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained within a package file,
     your system may be susceptible to ``trojan horses'' or other subtle attacks from miscreants
     who create dangerous package files.

     You are advised to verify the competence and identity of those who provide installable pack-
     age files.  For extra protection, use the -M flag to extract the package file, and inspect
     its contents and scripts to ensure it poses no danger to your system's integrity.	Pay par-
     ticular attention to any +INSTALL, +POST-INSTALL, +DEINSTALL, +POST-DEINSTALL, +REQUIRE or
     +MTREE_DIRS files, and inspect the +CONTENTS file for @cwd, @mode (check for setuid),
     @dirrm, @exec, and @unexec directives, and/or use the pkg_info(1) command to examine the
     package file.

OPTIONS
     The following command line arguments are supported:

     pkg-name [pkg-name ...]
	     The named packages are installed.	A package name of - will cause pkg_add to read
	     from stdin.  If the packages are not found in the current working directory, pkg_add
	     will search them in each directory named by PKG_PATH.

     -v, --verbose
	     Turn on verbose output.

     -K, --keep
	     Keep any downloaded package in PKGDIR if it is defined or in current directory by
	     default.

     -i, --no-deps
	     Install the package without fetching and installing dependencies.

     -I, --no-script
	     If any installation scripts (pre-install or post-install) exist for a given package,
	     do not execute them.

     -n, --dry-run
	     Do not actually install a package, just report the steps that would be taken if it
	     was.

     -R, --no-record
	     Do not record the installation of a package.  This means that you cannot deinstall
	     it later, so only use this option if you know what you are doing!

     -r, --remote
	     Use the remote fetching feature.  This will determine the appropriate objformat and
	     release and then fetch and install the package.

     -f, --force
	     Force installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are not installed or the
	     requirements script fails.  Although pkg_add will still try to find and auto-install
	     missing prerequisite packages, a failure to find one will not be fatal.

     -F      Already installed packages are not an error.

     -p, --prefix prefix
	     Set prefix as the directory in which to extract files from a package.  If a package
	     has set its default directory, it will be overridden by this flag.  Note that only
	     the first @cwd directive will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way of knowing which
	     directory settings are relative and which are absolute.  It is rare in any case to
	     see more than one directory transition made, but when such does happen and you wish
	     to have control over *all* directory transitions, then you may then wish to look
	     into the use of MASTER and SLAVE modes (see the -M and -S options).  If the -p flag
	     appears after any -P flag on the command line, it overrides its effect, causing
	     pkg_add not to use the given prefix recursively.

     -P prefix
	     Does the same as the -p option, except that the given prefix is also used recur-
	     sively for the dependency packages, if any.  If the -P flag appears after any -p
	     flag on the command line, it overrides its effect, causing pkg_add to use the given
	     prefix recursively.

     -t, --template template
	     Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a ``staging area''.  By
	     default, this is the string /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX, but it may be necessary to over-
	     ride it in the situation where space in your /var/tmp directory is limited.  Be sure
	     to leave some number of `X' characters for mktemp(3) to fill in with a unique ID.

	     You can get a performance boost by setting the staging area template to reside on
	     the same disk partition as target directories for package file installation; often
	     this is /usr.

     -M, --master
	     Run in MASTER mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running pkg_add and is
	     meant to be run in conjunction with SLAVE mode.  When run in this mode, pkg_add does
	     no work beyond extracting the package into a temporary staging area (see the -t
	     option), reading in the packing list, and then dumping it (prefaced by the current
	     staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a program such as sed(1).  When
	     used in conjunction with SLAVE mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the
	     package structure before acting on its contents.

     -S, --slave
	     Run in SLAVE mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running pkg_add and is meant
	     to be run in conjunction with MASTER mode.  When run in this mode, pkg_add expects
	     the release contents to be already extracted and waiting in the staging area, the
	     location of which is read as a string from stdin.	The complete packing list is also
	     read from stdin, and the contents then acted on as normal.

     -C, --chroot chrootdir
	     Before doing any operations, chroot(2) to the chrootdir directory so that all pack-
	     age files, and the package database, are installed to chrootdir.  Note that
	     chrootdir needs to be a fairly complete file system, including everything normally
	     needed by pkg_add to run.	This flag was added to help support operations done by
	     sysinstall(8) and is not expected to be useful for much else.  Be careful that
	     chrootdir is properly configured and cannot be modified by normal users, versions of
	     commands like fetch(1) may be run inside chrootdir as a side effect.

     One or more pkg-name arguments may be specified, each being either a file containing the
     package (these usually end with a ``.tbz'' suffix) or a URL pointing at a file available on
     an ftp site.  Thus you may extract files directly from their anonymous ftp locations (e.g.
     pkg_add ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/shells/bash-1.14.7.tbz).	Note: If
     you wish to use passive mode ftp in such transfers, set the variable FTP_PASSIVE_MODE to
     some value in your environment.  Otherwise, the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used.  If
     pkg_add consistently fails to fetch a package from a site known to work, it may be because
     you have a firewall that demands the usage of passive mode ftp.

TECHNICAL DETAILS
     The pkg_add utility extracts each package's ``packing list'' into a special staging direc-
     tory (see ENVIRONMENT), parses it, and then runs through the following sequence to fully
     extract the contents of the package:

     1.   A check is made to determine if the package is already recorded as installed.  If it
	  is, installation is terminated.

     2.   A check is made to determine if the package conflicts (from @conflicts directives, see
	  pkg_create(1)) with an already installed package.  If it is, installation is termi-
	  nated.

     3.   Scan all the package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see pkg_create(1)) are read
	  from the packing list.  If any of these required packages is not currently installed,
	  an attempt is made to find and install it; if the missing package cannot be found or
	  installed, the installation is terminated.

     4.   Search for any @option directives which control how the package is added to the system.
	  At the time of this writing, the only currently implemented option is @option
	  extract-in-place which will cause the package to be extracted directly into its prefix
	  directory without moving through a staging area.

     5.   If @option extract-in-place is enabled, the package is now extracted directly into its
	  final location, otherwise it is extracted into the staging area.

     6.   If a requirements script +REQUIRE exists for the package (see the -r flag of
	  pkg_create(1)), then execute it with the following arguments:

		pkg-name INSTALL

	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and the ``INSTALL'' keyword
	  denotes this as an installation requirements check (useful if you want to have one
	  script serving multiple functions).

     7.   If a pre-install script +INSTALL exists for the package, it is then executed with the
	  following arguments:

		pkg-name PRE-INSTALL

	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and ``PRE-INSTALL'' is a keyword
	  denoting this as the preinstallation phase.

	  Note: The ``PRE-INSTALL'' keyword will not appear if separate scripts for pre-install
	  and post-install are given during package creation time (using the -i and -I flags to
	  pkg_create(1)).

     8.   If @option extract-in-place is not used, then the packing list (this is the +CONTENTS
	  file) is now used as a guide for moving (or copying, as necessary) files from the stag-
	  ing area into their final locations.

     9.   If an mtree file +MTREE_DIRS exists for the package (see the -m flag of pkg_create(1)),
	  then mtree(8) is invoked as:

		mtree -U -f +MTREE_DIRS -d -e -p prefix

	  where prefix is either the prefix specified with the -p or -P flag or, if neither flag
	  was specified, the name of the first directory named by a @cwd directive within this
	  package.

     10.  If a post-install script +POST-INSTALL exists for the package, it is then executed with
	  the following arguments:

		pkg-name POST-INSTALL

	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and ``POST-INSTALL'' is a keyword
	  denoting this as the post-installation phase.

	  Note: The ``POST-INSTALL'' keyword will not appear if separate scripts for pre-install
	  and post-install are given during package creation time (using the -i and -I flags to
	  pkg_create(1)).

	  Reasoning behind passing keywords such as ``POST-INSTALL'' and ``PRE-INSTALL'' is that
	  this allows you to write a single install script that does both ``before'' and
	  ``after'' actions.  But, separating the functionality is more advantageous and easier
	  from a maintenance viewpoint.

     11.  After installation is complete, a copy of the description (+DESC), comment (+COMMENT),
	  pre-install script (+INSTALL), post-install script (+POST-INSTALL), deinstall script
	  (+DEINSTALL), post-deinstall script (+POST-DEINSTALL), requirements script (+REQUIRE),
	  display (+DISPLAY), mtree (+MTREE_DIRS), and packing list (+CONTENTS) files are copied
	  into /var/db/pkg/<pkg-name> for subsequent possible use by pkg_delete(1).  Any package
	  dependencies are recorded in the other packages' /var/db/pkg/<other-pkg>/+REQUIRED_BY
	  file (if the environment variable PKG_DBDIR is set, this overrides the /var/db/pkg/
	  path shown above).

     12.  Finally, the staging area is deleted and the program terminates.

     All the scripts are called with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set to the installation
     prefix (see the -p and -P options above).	This allows a package author to write a script
     that reliably performs some action on the directory where the package is installed, even if
     the user might change it with the -p or -P flags to pkg_add.

ENVIRONMENT
     The value of the PKG_PATH is used if a given package cannot be found.  The environment vari-
     able should be a series of entries separated by colons.  Each entry consists of a directory
     name.  The current directory may be indicated implicitly by an empty directory name, or
     explicitly by a single period.

     The environment variable PKG_DBDIR specifies an alternative location for the installed pack-
     age database, default location is /var/db/pkg.

     The environment variables PKG_TMPDIR and TMPDIR, in that order, are taken to name temporary
     directories where pkg_add will attempt to create its staging area in.  If these variables
     are not present or if the directories named lack sufficient space, then pkg_add will use the
     first of /var/tmp, /tmp or /usr/tmp with sufficient space.

     The environment variable PACKAGEROOT specifies an alternate location for pkg_add to fetch
     from.  The fetch URL is built using this environment variable and the automatic directory
     logic that pkg_add uses when the -r option is invoked.  An example setting would be
     "ftp://ftp3.FreeBSD.org".

     The environment variable PACKAGESITE specifies an alternate location for pkg_add to fetch
     from.  This variable subverts the automatic directory logic that pkg_add uses when the -r
     option is invoked.  Thus it should be a complete URL to the remote package file(s).

     The environment variable PKGDIR specifies an alternative location to save downloaded pack-
     ages to when -K option is used.

FILES
     /var/tmp	  Temporary directory for creating the staging area, if environmental variables
		  PKG_TMPDIR or TMPDIR do not point to a suitable directory.
     /tmp	  Next choice if /var/tmp does not exist or has insufficient space.
     /usr/tmp	  Last choice if /var/tmp and /tmp are not suitable for creating the staging
		  area.
     /var/db/pkg  Default location of the installed package database.

SEE ALSO
     pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1), pkg_version(1), mktemp(3), sysconf(3), mtree(8)

AUTHORS
     Jordan Hubbard

CONTRIBUTORS
     John Kohl <jtk@rational.com>

BUGS
     Hard links between files in a distribution are only preserved if either (1) the staging area
     is on the same file system as the target directory of all the links to the file, or (2) all
     the links to the file are bracketed by @cwd directives in the contents file, and the link
     names are extracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations due to exec
     argument-space limitations--this depends on the value returned by sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)).

     Sure to be others.

BSD					 January 4, 2009				      BSD
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